حزب خلق ملی آلمان

حزب خلق ملی آلمان (به آلمانی: Deutschnationale Volkspartei، یا به اختصار DNVP) نام یک حزب محافظه‌کار ملی بود که در زمان جمهوری وایمار فعالیت داشت. تا پیش از برآمدن حزب ناسیونال‌سوسیالیست کارگران آلمان، حزب خلق ملی آلمان عمده‌ترین حزب محافظه‌کار و ملی آلمان بود. این حزب در اواخر ۱۹۱۸ میلادی و پس از انقلاب ۱۹۱۸-۱۹۱۹ آلمان پایه‌ریزی شد.

حزب خلق ملی آلمان

Deutschnationale Volkspartei
کوته‌نوشتDNVP
چرمنOskar Hergt (1918–1924)
Johann Friedrich Winckler (1925–1926)
Kuno Graf von Westarp (1926–1928)
Alfred Hugenberg (1928–1933)
مدیر عامل اجراییJohann Friedrich Winckler (1924–1925)
بنیان‌گذاری24 November 1918
انحلال و برچینش27 June 1933
ادغام ازGerman Social Party[۱]
German Völkisch Party[۲]
Christian Social Party[۲]
German Conservative Party
Free Conservative Party
German Fatherland Party
National Liberal Party (far-right faction)
پسینPre-war:
Single-party system of the NSDAP (1933–1945)
Post-war:
DKP-DRP[۳][۴] (de facto)
روزنامهSupported by German businessman and politician Alfred Hugenberg's media group[۵]
شاخه جوانانBismarckjugend
Paramilitary wingKampfstaffeln
Policy institutePan-German League
اعضای ثبت‌نام کرده950,000 (ح. 1923)
مرام سیاسیProto-fascism[۶]
German nationalism
Authoritarian conservatism[۷]
National conservatism[۸]
Social conservatism
Right-wing populism[۹][۱۰]
Reactionary monarchism[۱۱][۱۲][۱۳]
Antisemitism[۱۴]
Anti-communism

Internal factions:
Reactionary conservative monarchists
Radical populist völkisch elements[۱۵][۱۶]
طیف سیاسیRight-wing[۱۷][۱۸] to far-right[۱۹][۲۰]
وابستگی ملیHarzburg Front (1931)
Black-White-Red Struggle Front (1933)
German Reichstag (December 1924)
۱۰۳ از ۴۹۳
Flag of Germany (1867–1918).svg
نشان حزب خلق ملی آلمان

این حزب مخالف سرسخت قانون اساسی وایمار و پیمان ورسای بود. از ۱۹۲۹ حزب با حزب نازی آدولف هیتلر وارد همکاری شد، در ۱۹۳۳ از صدارت عظمای هیتلر حمایت نمود و در همان سال منحل گردید.

جستارهای وابستهویرایش

منابعویرایش

  1. Larry Eugene Jones, The German Right in the Weimar Republic: Studies in the History of German Conservatism, Nationalism, and Antisemitism, Berghahn Books, 2014, p. 80
  2. ۲٫۰ ۲٫۱ Winkler, Heinrich August (2000), Germany: The Long Road West, 1789–1933, Oxford University Press, p. 352
  3. R. Eatwell, Fascism: A History, London: Pimlico, 2003, p. 277
  4. Dudek, Peter; Jaschke, Hans-Gerd (1984). Entstehung und Entwicklung des Rechtsextremismus in der Bundesrepublik. 1. Westdeutscher Verlag. pp. 181–201.
  5. Robert Wistrich, Who's Who in Nazi Germany, Bonanza Books, 1984, p. 157
  6. Peter Davies, Derek Lynch. The Routledge Companion to Fascism and the Far Right London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Routledge. p.94.
  7. Seymour M. Lipset, "Social Stratification and 'Right-Wing Extremism'" British Journal of Sociology 10#4 (1959), pp. 346-382 on-line
  8. Ulrike Ehret (2012). "The Catholic right, political Catholicism and radicalism: the Catholic right in Germany". Church, Nation and Race: Catholics and Antisemitism in Germany and England, 1918-45. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-1-84779-452-9.
  9. Kitchen, Martin (2006), Europe Between the Wars: A Political History (Second ed.), Pearson Education, p. 249
  10. Barth, Boris (2006), Genozid: Völkermord im 20. Jahrhundert : Geschichte, Theorien, Kontroversen (به German), C. H. Beck, p. 176
  11. Serge, Victor (2011), Witness to the German Revolution, Haymarket Books, p. 232
  12. Gunlicks, Arthur B. (2011), Comparing Liberal Democracies: The United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, and the European Union, iUniverse, p. 127
  13. Ringer, Fritz K. (1990), The Decline of the German Mandarins: The German Academic Community, 1890–1933, University Press of New England, p. 201
  14. Eric D. Weitz, Weimar Germany: Promise and Tragedy. (Princeton: Princeton University, 2007), 95–96.
  15. Adolf Hitler: a biographical companion David Nicholls page 178 November 1, 2000 The main nationalist party the German National People's Party DNVP was divided between reactionary conservative monarchists, who wished to turn the clock back to the pre-1918 Kaisereich, and more radical volkisch and anti-semitic elements. It also inherited the support of old Pan-German League, whose nationalism rested on belief in the inherent superiority of the German people
  16. Kershaw, Ian "Ideology, Propaganda, and the Rise of the Nazi Party" pages 162-181 from The Nazi Machtergreifung edited by Peter Stachura, London: George Allen, 1983 page 165.
  17. Jones, Larry Eugene; Retallack, James (1992). Introduction. Elections, Mass Politics and Social Change in Modern Germany: New Perspectives. Cambridge University Press. p. 11.
  18. Stibbe, Matthew (2010). Germany, 1914–1933: Politics, Society and Culture. Pearson Education. p. 212.
  19. Caldwell, Peter C. (1997), Popular Sovereignty and the Crisis of German Constitutional Law: The Theory & Practice of Weimar Constitutionalism, Duke University Press, p. 74
  20. Caldwell, Peter C. (2008), "The Citizen and the Republic in Germany, 1918–1935", Citizenship and National Identity in Twentieth-Century Germany, Stanford University Press, p. 48

Wikipedia contributors, "German National People's Party," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=German_National_People%27s_Party&oldid=864135726 (accessed November 16, 2018).