باز کردن منو اصلی

برندگان یهودی جایزه‌های نوبل بر پایه رشته‌های مختلف در زیر فهرست شده‌اند:

ادبیاتویرایش

سال برنده[A] کشور[B] دلیل[C]
۱۹۱۰   پال هیزه[۱] آلمان "as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories"[۲]
۱۹۲۷   آنری برگسون[۱] فرانسه "in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented"[۳]
۱۹۵۸ بوریس پاسترناک[۱] جماهیر شوروی "for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition"[۴]
۱۹۶۶   شموئل یوسف آگنون[۱] اسرائیل "for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people"[۵]
  نلی زاکس[۱] آلمان "for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel's destiny with touching strength"[۵]
۱۹۷۶ سال بلو[۱] ایالات متحده "for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work"[۶]
۱۹۷۸ ایزاک بشویس سینگر[۱] ایالات متحده "for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life"[۷]
۱۹۸۱   الیاس کانتی[۱] انگلستان "for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power"[۸]
۱۹۸۷ ایوسیف برودسکی[۱] ایالات متحده "for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity"[۹]
۱۹۹۱   نادین گوردیمر[۱] آفریقای جنوبی "who through her magnificent epic writing has – in the words of Alfred Nobel – been of very great benefit to humanity"[۱۰]
۲۰۰۲   ایمره کرتس[۱] مجارستان "for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history"[۱۱]
۲۰۰۴   الفریده یلینک[۱۲] اتریش "for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating power"[۱۳]
۲۰۰۵ هارولد پینتر[۱۴] انگلستان "who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms"[۱۵]

شیمیویرایش

Year Laureate[A] Country[B] Rationale[C]
۱۹۰۵   آدولف فون بایر[۱] آلمان "[for] the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds"[۱۶]
۱۹۰۶   هانری مواسان[۱۷] فرانسه "[for his] investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for [the] electric furnace called after him"[۱۸]
۱۹۱۰   اوتو والاخ[۱] آلمان "[for] his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of ترکیب‌های آلیفاتیک حلقویs"[۱۹]
۱۹۱۵   ریچارد ویلشتتر[۱] آلمان "for his researches on plant pigments, especially سبزینه"[۲۰]
۱۹۱۸   فریتس هابر[۱] آلمان "for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"[۲۱]
۱۹۴۳   گئورگ دو هوسی[۱] Hungary "for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes"[۲۲]
۱۹۶۱   ملوین کالوین[۱] United States "for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"[۲۳]
۱۹۶۲ ماکس پراتز[۲۴] United Kingdom "for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"[۲۵]
۱۹۷۲ ویلیام اشتین[۱] United States "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"[۲۶]
۱۹۷۷ ایلیا پریگوژین Belgium "for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures"[۲۷]
۱۹۷۹ هربرت براون United States "for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis"[۲۸]
۱۹۸۰   پل برگ[۱] United States "for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"[۲۹]
  والتر گیلبرت[۱] United States "for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"[۲۹]
۱۹۸۱   رولد هافمن[۱] United States "for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"[۳۰]
۱۹۸۲ ارون کلوگ[۱] United Kingdom "for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes"[۳۱]
۱۹۸۵   جروم کارل United States "for their outstanding achievements in developing direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"[۳۲]
  هربرت هاپتمن United States
۱۹۸۹ سیدنی آلتمن[۱] Canada
United States
"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"[۳۳]
۱۹۹۲   رادولف مارکوس[۱] United States "for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"[۳۴]
۱۹۹۸   والتر کوهن[۱] United States "for his development of the density-functional theory"[۳۵]
۲۰۰۴   هارون تسیخانوور اسرائیل "for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"[۳۶]
  افرام هرشکو Israel
  اروین روز United States
۲۰۰۶   راجر کورنبرگ United States "for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"[۳۷]
۲۰۰۹   عادا یونات Israel "for studies of the structure and function of the ریبوزوم"[۳۸]

پزشکیویرایش

سال برندگان[A] کشور[B] دلیل[C]
۱۹۰۸   ایلیا مچنیکو[۱] Russia "in recognition of their work on immunity"[۳۹]
پل الریخ[۱] آلمان
۱۹۱۴   رابرت بارانی[۱] Austria "for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus"[۴۰]
۱۹۲۲ اتو فریتز میرهوف[۱] آلمان "for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the دگرگشت of اسید لاکتیک in the muscle"[۴۱]
۱۹۳۰   کارل لندستینر[۱] Austria "for his discovery of human blood groups"[۴۲]
۱۹۳۱ اتو واربورگ[۱] آلمان "for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"[۴۳]
۱۹۳۶ اتو لوی[۱] Austria "for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"[۴۴]
۱۹۴۴ جوزف ارلنگر[۱] United States "for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single آسهs"[۴۵]
هربرت اسپنسر گسر
۱۹۴۵ ارنست چین[۱] United Kingdom "for the discovery of پنی‌سیلین and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"[۴۶]
۱۹۴۶ هرمان جوزف مولر[۱] United States "for the discovery of the production of جهشs by means of پرتو ایکس irradiation"[۴۷]
۱۹۴۷   جرتی کوری United States "for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of گلیکوژن"[۴۸]
۱۹۵۰   تادئوس ریچستین[۱] Switzerland "for their discoveries relating to the هورمونs of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"[۴۹]
۱۹۵۲   سلمان واکسمن[۱] United States "for his discovery of استرپتومایسین, the first آنتی‌بیوتیک effective against سل"[۵۰]
۱۹۵۳ هانس آدولف کربس[۱] United Kingdom "for his discovery of the چرخه اسید سیتریک"[۵۱]
  فریتس لیپمان[۱] United States "for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"[۵۱]
۱۹۵۸   جاشوآ لدربرگ[۱] United States "for his discoveries concerning نوترکیبی ژنی and the organization of the genetic material of باکتری"[۵۲]
۱۹۵۹   آرتور کورنبرگ[۱] United States "for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of آران‌ای and دی‌ان‌ای"[۵۳]
۱۹۶۴   کنراد امیل بلوک[۱] United States "for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the کلسترول and اسید چرب دگرگشت"[۵۴]
۱۹۶۵ فرانسوا یاکوب[۱] France "for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"[۵۵]
آندره لووف[۱]
۱۹۶۷ جورج والد[۱] United States "for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"[۵۶]
۱۹۶۸   مارشال وارن نیرنبرگ[۱] United States "for their interpretation of the رمز ژنتیکی and its function in protein synthesis"[۵۷]
۱۹۶۹   سالوادور لوریا[۱] United States "for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of ویروس (زیستی)es"[۵۸]
۱۹۷۰   ژولیوس اکسلراد[۱] United States "for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"[۵۹]
برنارد کتس[۱] United Kingdom
۱۹۷۲ جرالد ادلمن[۱] United States "for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of پادتن"[۶۰]
۱۹۷۵   دیوید بالتیمور[۱] United States "for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"[۶۱]
هوآرد تمین[۱] United States
۱۹۷۶ باروخ ساموئل بلومبرگ[۱] United States "for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"[۶۲]
۱۹۷۷   اندرو شالی United States "for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the مغز"[۶۳]
روزالین سوسمن یالو[۱] United States "for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"[۶۳]
۱۹۷۸ دنیل ناتانس[۱] United States "for the discovery of اندونوکلئازهای محدودکنندهs and their application to problems of ژنتیک مولکولی"[۶۴]
۱۹۸۰ باروخ بن الصراف[۱] United States "for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"[۶۵]
۱۹۸۲ جان وین (داروشناس) United Kingdom "for his discoveries concerning پروستاگلاندینs and related biologically active substances"[۶۶]
۱۹۸۴   سزار میلستین[۱] Argentina
United Kingdom
"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the دستگاه ایمنی and the discovery of the principle for production of پادتن‌های تک‌تیره"[۶۷]
۱۹۸۵   مایکل اس. براون[۱] United States "for their discoveries concerning the regulation of کلسترول دگرگشت"[۶۸]
  جوزف ال. گلدستین[۱] United States
۱۹۸۶   Stanley Cohen[۱] United States "for their discoveries of growth factors"[۶۹]
  ریتا لوی مونتالچینی[۱] Italy
۱۹۸۸   گرترود بی. الیون[۱] United States "for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"[۷۰]
۱۹۸۹   هارولد وارموس[۱] United States "for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral آنکوژنs"[۷۱]
۱۹۹۲ ادموند اچ. فیشر Switzerland
United States
"for his discoveries concerning reversible پروتئین فسفرگیری as a biological regulatory mechanism"[۷۲]
۱۹۹۴ آلفرد جی. گیلمان[۱] United States "for their discovery of جی پروتئینs and the role of these proteins in ورارسانی پیام in cells"[۷۳]
  مارتین رادبل[۱]
۱۹۹۷   استنلی پریسینر[۱] United States "for his discovery of پریونs – a new biological principle of infection"[۷۴]
۱۹۹۸   رابرت فرانسیس فوچگات[۱] United States "for their discoveries concerning نیتریک اکسید as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"[۷۵]
۲۰۰۰   پائول گرینگارد[۱] United States "for their discoveries concerning ورارسانی پیام in the دستگاه عصبی"[۷۶]
  اریک کندل[۱] United States
۲۰۰۲ سیدنی برنر[۱] United Kingdom "for their discoveries concerning 'genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"[۷۷]
رابرت هرویتس[۱] United States
۲۰۰۴ ریچارد اکسل United States "for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the دستگاه بویایی"[۷۸]
۲۰۰۶   اندرو فایر United States "for his discovery of آران‌ای سرکوبگر – gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"[۷۹]
۲۰۱۱   بروس بویتلر ایالات متحده آمریکا به خاطر «اکتشافات فعال‌سازی سیستم ایمنی ذاتی بدن».[۸۰]
رالف استاینمن کانادا
۲۰۱۳ جیمز روثمن United States for "their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"[۸۱]
  رندی شکمن United States

فیزیکویرایش

سال برندگان[A] کشور[B] دلیل[C]
۱۹۰۷   آلبرت آبراهام مایکلسون[۱] United States "for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid"[۸۲]
۱۹۰۸   گابریل لیپمن[۱] فرانسه "for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"[۸۳]
۱۹۲۱   آلبرت اینشتین[۱] آلمان "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the اثر فوتوالکتریک"[۸۴]
۱۹۲۲   نیلز بور[۱] Denmark "for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"[۸۵]
۱۹۲۵   جیمز فرانک[۱] آلمان "for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an الکترون upon an atom"[۸۶]
Gustav Hertz[۱] آلمان
۱۹۴۳ اتو اشترن[۱] United States "for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the گشتاور مغناطیسی of the پروتون"[۸۷]
۱۹۴۴   ایزیدور ایزاک رابی[۱] United States "for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"[۸۸]
۱۹۴۵   Wolfgang Pauli[۸۹] Austria "for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the اصل طرد پاولی"[۹۰]
۱۹۵۲   فلیکس بلاک[۱] United States "for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"[۹۱]
۱۹۵۴   ماکس برن[۱] United Kingdom "for his fundamental research in مکانیک کوانتوم, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"[۹۲]
۱۹۵۸   لیا فرانک Soviet Union "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"[۹۳]
ایگور یوگنیویچ تام[۹۴] Soviet Union
۱۹۵۹   Emilio Gino Segrè[۱] Italy "for their discovery of the پادپروتون"[۹۵]
۱۹۶۰   دونالد آرتور گلایزر United States "for the invention of the bubble chamber"[۹۶]
۱۹۶۱   رابرت هافستاتر[۱] United States "for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"[۹۷]
۱۹۶۲ لو لاندائو[۱] Soviet Union "for his pioneering theories for فیزیک ماده چگال, especially liquid helium"[۹۸]
۱۹۶۳ Eugene Paul Wigner United States "for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"[۹۹]
۱۹۶۵   ریچارد فاینمن[۱] United States "for their fundamental work in الکترودینامیک کوانتومی, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"[۱۰۰]
  جولیان شوینگر[۱] United States
۱۹۶۷   هانس بته[۱] United States "for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in ستارهs"[۱۰۱]
۱۹۶۹   موری گل‌مان[۱] United States "for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"[۱۰۲]
۱۹۷۱ دنیس گابور[۱] United Kingdom "for his invention and development of the holographic method"[۱۰۳]
۱۹۷۲ لئون نیل کوپر United States "for his jointly developed theory of ابررسانایی, usually called the نظریه بی‌سی‌اس"[۱۰۴]
۱۹۷۳ بریان دیوید جوزفسون[۱] United Kingdom "for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effect"[۱۰۵]
۱۹۷۵   بن روی ماتلسن[۱] Denmark "for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"[۱۰۶]
۱۹۷۶   برتون ریشتر[۱] United States "for his pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"[۱۰۷]
۱۹۷۸   آرنو آلان پنزیاس[۱] United States "for his discovery of تابش زمینه کیهانی"[۱۰۸]
۱۹۷۹   شلدون لی گلاشو[۱] United States "for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"[۱۰۹]
  استیون واینبرگ[۱] United States
۱۹۸۸   لیان لدرمن[۱] United States "for the نوترینو beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the لپتونs through the discovery of the muon neutrino"[۱۱۰]
ملوین شوارتز[۱] United States
  جک اشتینبرگر[۱] United States
۱۹۹۰ جروم ایزاک فریدمان[۱] United States "for his pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"[۱۱۱]
۱۹۹۲   جورج چرپک فرانسه "for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"[۱۱۲]
۱۹۹۵   مارتین لویز پرل[۱] United States "for the discovery of the تاو (ذره)" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to لپتون physics"[۱۱۳]
  فردریک رینز[۱] United States "for the detection of the نوترینو" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to لپتون physics"[۱۱۳]
۱۹۹۶ David Morris Lee[۱] United States "for their discovery of ابرشارهity in helium-3"[۱۱۴]
  داگلاس دین اشرفت[۱] United States
۱۹۹۷   کلود کوهن تانوژی[۱] فرانسه "for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"[۱۱۵]
۲۰۰۰   ژورس آلفروف[۱] Russia "for developing نیمه‌رسانا heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics"[۱۱۶]
۲۰۰۳   آلکسی آلکسیویچ آبریکوسوف Russia
United States
"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"[۱۱۷]
  ویتالی لازاریویچ گینزبرگ Russia
۲۰۰۴   دیوید گراس United States "for the discovery of آزادی مجانبی in the theory of the نیروی هسته‌ای قوی"[۱۱۸]
دیوید پولیتزر United States
۲۰۰۵   روی جی. گلوبر United States "for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"[۱۱۹]
۲۰۱۱   آدم ریس  آمریکا "برای کشف انبساط شتابان جهان از طریق ابرنواخترهای دوردست."[۱۲۰]
  سال پرلموتر  آمریکا
۲۰۱۲   سرژ هاروش France "for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"[۱۱۹]
۲۰۱۳   فرانسوا انگلرت Belgium "for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider"[۱۲۱]

صلحویرایش

Year Laureate[A] Country[B] Rationale[C]
۱۹۱۱   توبیاس آسر[۱] The Netherlands "Initiator of the Conferences on International Private Law at the Hague; Cabinet Minister; Lawyer"[۱۲۲]
  آلفرد فرید[۱] Austria "Journalist; Founder of Die Friedenswarte"[۱۲۰]
۱۹۶۸   رنه کسن[۱] فرانسه "President of the European Court for Human Rights"[۱۲۳]
۱۹۷۳   Henry A. Kissinger[۱] United States "For the 1973 Paris agreement intended to bring about a cease-fire in the Vietnam War and a withdrawal of the American forces"[۱۲۴][۱۲۵]
۱۹۷۸   مناخم بگین[۱] اسرائیل "for the Camp David Agreement, which brought about a negotiated peace between Egypt and Israel"[۱۲۶]
۱۹۸۶   الی ویزل[۱] United States "Chairman of "The President's Commission on the Holocaust""[۱۲۷]
۱۹۹۴   اسحاق رابین[۱] Israel "to honour a political act which called for great courage on both sides, and which has opened up opportunities for a new development towards fraternity in the Middle East."[۱۲۸]
  شیمون پرز[۱] Israel
۱۹۹۵   ژوزف روتبلات United Kingdom
Poland
"for his efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms"[۱۲۹]

اقتصادویرایش

Year Laureate[A] Country[B] Rationale[C]
۱۹۷۰ پل ساموئلسون[۱] United States "for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science"[۱۳۰]
۱۹۷۱ سیمون کوزنتس[۱] United States "for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development"[۱۳۱]
۱۹۷۲   کنت آرو[۱] United States "for his pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory"[۱۳۲]
۱۹۷۳ واسیلی لئونتیف Russia
Germany
United States
"for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems"[۱۳۳]
۱۹۷۵   لئونید کانتوروویچ[۱] Russia
Germany
United States
"for his contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources"[۱۳۴]
۱۹۷۶ میلتون فریدمن[۱] United States "for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy"[۱۳۵]
۱۹۷۸ هربرت الکساندر سیمون[۱] United States "for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations"[۱۳۶]
۱۹۸۰ لارنس کلاین[۱] United States "for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies"[۱۳۷]
۱۹۸۵   فرانکو مودیلیانی[۱] Italy
United States
"for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets"[۱۳۸]
۱۹۸۷   رابرت سولو[۱] United States "for his contributions to the theory of economic growth""[۱۳۹]
۱۹۹۰ هری مارکوویتز[۱] United States "for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics""[۱۴۰]
مرتون میلر United States
۱۹۹۲   گری بکر[۱] United States "for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including nonmarket behaviour""[۱۴۱]
۱۹۹۳   رابرت فوگل[۱] United States "for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change"[۱۴۲]
۱۹۹۴ جان هارسانی[۱] Hungary
United States
"for his pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games"[۱۴۳]>
۲۰۰۱   جوزف استیگلیتز[۱] United States "for his analyses of markets with asymmetric information"[۱۴۴]
۲۰۰۲   دانیل کاهنمن[۱] Israel
United States
"for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty"[۱۴۵]
۲۰۰۵   روبرت اوئمان[۱۴۶] Israel
United States
"for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis"[۱۴۷]
۲۰۰۷   لئونید هورویچ[۱۴۸][۱۴۹][۱۵۰] United States "For having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory"[۱۵۱]
  اریک ماسکین United States
  راجر میرسون United States
۲۰۰۸   پل کروگمن[۱۵۲] United States "for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity"[۱۵۳]
۲۰۱۰   پیتر دیاموند United States "for his analysis of markets with search frictions"[۱۵۴]
۲۰۱۲   الوین رات United States "for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design" [۱۵۵]

جستارهای وابستهویرایش

منابعویرایش

کلی

  • "All Nobel Laureates in Literature". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-16.

ویژه
  1. ۱٫۰۰۰ ۱٫۰۰۱ ۱٫۰۰۲ ۱٫۰۰۳ ۱٫۰۰۴ ۱٫۰۰۵ ۱٫۰۰۶ ۱٫۰۰۷ ۱٫۰۰۸ ۱٫۰۰۹ ۱٫۰۱۰ ۱٫۰۱۱ ۱٫۰۱۲ ۱٫۰۱۳ ۱٫۰۱۴ ۱٫۰۱۵ ۱٫۰۱۶ ۱٫۰۱۷ ۱٫۰۱۸ ۱٫۰۱۹ ۱٫۰۲۰ ۱٫۰۲۱ ۱٫۰۲۲ ۱٫۰۲۳ ۱٫۰۲۴ ۱٫۰۲۵ ۱٫۰۲۶ ۱٫۰۲۷ ۱٫۰۲۸ ۱٫۰۲۹ ۱٫۰۳۰ ۱٫۰۳۱ ۱٫۰۳۲ ۱٫۰۳۳ ۱٫۰۳۴ ۱٫۰۳۵ ۱٫۰۳۶ ۱٫۰۳۷ ۱٫۰۳۸ ۱٫۰۳۹ ۱٫۰۴۰ ۱٫۰۴۱ ۱٫۰۴۲ ۱٫۰۴۳ ۱٫۰۴۴ ۱٫۰۴۵ ۱٫۰۴۶ ۱٫۰۴۷ ۱٫۰۴۸ ۱٫۰۴۹ ۱٫۰۵۰ ۱٫۰۵۱ ۱٫۰۵۲ ۱٫۰۵۳ ۱٫۰۵۴ ۱٫۰۵۵ ۱٫۰۵۶ ۱٫۰۵۷ ۱٫۰۵۸ ۱٫۰۵۹ ۱٫۰۶۰ ۱٫۰۶۱ ۱٫۰۶۲ ۱٫۰۶۳ ۱٫۰۶۴ ۱٫۰۶۵ ۱٫۰۶۶ ۱٫۰۶۷ ۱٫۰۶۸ ۱٫۰۶۹ ۱٫۰۷۰ ۱٫۰۷۱ ۱٫۰۷۲ ۱٫۰۷۳ ۱٫۰۷۴ ۱٫۰۷۵ ۱٫۰۷۶ ۱٫۰۷۷ ۱٫۰۷۸ ۱٫۰۷۹ ۱٫۰۸۰ ۱٫۰۸۱ ۱٫۰۸۲ ۱٫۰۸۳ ۱٫۰۸۴ ۱٫۰۸۵ ۱٫۰۸۶ ۱٫۰۸۷ ۱٫۰۸۸ ۱٫۰۸۹ ۱٫۰۹۰ ۱٫۰۹۱ ۱٫۰۹۲ ۱٫۰۹۳ ۱٫۰۹۴ ۱٫۰۹۵ ۱٫۰۹۶ ۱٫۰۹۷ ۱٫۰۹۸ ۱٫۰۹۹ ۱٫۱۰۰ ۱٫۱۰۱ ۱٫۱۰۲ ۱٫۱۰۳ ۱٫۱۰۴ ۱٫۱۰۵ ۱٫۱۰۶ ۱٫۱۰۷ ۱٫۱۰۸ ۱٫۱۰۹ ۱٫۱۱۰ ۱٫۱۱۱ ۱٫۱۱۲ ۱٫۱۱۳ ۱٫۱۱۴ ۱٫۱۱۵ ۱٫۱۱۶ ۱٫۱۱۷ ۱٫۱۱۸ ۱٫۱۱۹ ۱٫۱۲۰ ۱٫۱۲۱ ۱٫۱۲۲ ۱٫۱۲۳ ۱٫۱۲۴ ۱٫۱۲۵ ۱٫۱۲۶ ۱٫۱۲۷ Schreiber, Mordecai; Schiff, Alvin I.; Klenicki, Leon, eds. (2003), "Jewish Nobel Prize Winners", The Shengold Jewish Encyclopedia, Schreiber Publishing, p. 198, ISBN 1887563776
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