تفاوت میان نسخه‌های «حداقل دستمزد»

۸٬۳۵۶ بایت اضافه‌شده ،  ۷ سال پیش
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'''حداقل دستمزد''' کمترین اجرتی ست که کارفرمایان باید قانوناً به کارگران بپردازند. به طور معادل، کمترین دستمزدیست که کارگران کارشان را در ازای آن می‌فروشند. گرچه قوانین مختلفی در خصوص آن اکنون در حال اجرا ست، دیدگاههای مختلفی در باره مزایا و معایب آن وجود دارد.
 
حامیان آن می گویندمی‌گویند استاندارد زندگی کارگران را زیاد، فقر و نابرابری را کم می‌کند و کاروپیشه را را مجبور به کارامد تر شدن می‌کند.<ref>Advantages Of The Minimum Wage http://robertnielsen21.wordpress.com/2012/07/27/the-advantage-of-the-minimum-wage/</ref> مخالفینش می گویندمی‌گویند اگر زیادی بالا باشد، بیکاری را زیاد می‌کند خصوصاً بین کارگران کم بازده به دلیل بی تجربگی یا ناتوانی زین رو به کارگران کم مهارت ضرر می‌زند و برخی گروهها را از بازار کار حذف می‌کند و مممکن است از دیگر راهها کاهش فقر کم کارامد تر و آسیب زننده تر باشد.<ref name='Oxford'>{{cite book | last = Black | first = John | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = Oxford Dictionary of Economics | publisher = Oxford University Press, USA | date = September 18, 2003 | location = | page = ۳۰۰ | url = http://www.amazon.com/dp/0198607679 | doi = | id = | isbn =}}</ref>
 
== مباحثه در خصوص نتایج ==
قوانین حداقل دستمزد معمولاً خلاف معیار کاهش فقر تشخیص داده شده‌اند.<ref name='Palgrave1987'>{{cite book | last = Eatwell | first = John, Ed. | authorlink = | coauthors = Murray Milgate, Peter Newman | title = The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics | publisher = The Macmillan Press Limited | year = 1987 | location = London | pages = 476–478 | url = | doi = | id = | isbn = 0-333-37235-2 }}</ref>
 
قوانین حداقل دستمزد در بیشتر زمینه‌های اشتغال با پرداختی کم کارگران را تحت الشعاع قرار می‌دهند.<ref name='Neumark'>{{cite book | last = Neumark | first = David | authorlink = | coauthors = William L. Wascher | title = Minimum Wages | publisher = The MIT Press | year = 2008 | location = Cambridge, Massachusetts | pages =| url = http://mitpress.mit.edu/catalog/item/default.asp?ttype=2&tid=11659|doi=| isbn = 978-0-262-14102-4 }}</ref>
 
حمایت از حداقل دستمزد در بین اقتصاددانان کمتر از عموم است. با وجود دهه‌ها پژوهش اقتصادی و آزمایش، مباحثات در خصوص هزینه‌ها و منفعت‌های حداقل دستمزد تا به امروز ادامه دارد.<ref name="Neumark"/> A widely circulated argument that the minimum wage was ineffective at reducing poverty was provided by
 
نظرات موافق و مخالف در اینجا خلاصه شده است.
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;استدلال‌ها درحمایت از حداقل دستمزد
* استاندارد زندگی برای فقیرترین و آسیب پذیرترین طبقه جامعه را بالا برده میانگین را بالا می‌برد. .<ref name="EPI site">{{cite web|url=http://www.epi.org/publication/bp178/ |title=Real Value of the Minimum Wage |publisher=Epi.org |date= |accessdate=2013-03-29}}</ref>
* کارگران را تشویق کرده و بآنها انگیزه می‌بخشد بیشتر کار کنند<ref name="freeman paper">{{cite journal |author= Richard B. Freeman |title= Minimum Wages – Again! |version= |publisher= International Journal of Manpower |year= 1994 |url= }}</ref>
* با گذاشتن پول بیشتر در دست مردم کم درآمدی که همهٔ دریافتی خود را خرج می‌کنند مصرف را تحریک می‌کند.<ref name="EPI site" />
* اخلاق کاری آنانی که درآمد خیلی کمی دارند را زیاد می‌کنند زیرا کارفرمایان از هزینهٔ بیشتر استخدام این کارکنان انتظار بیشتری دارند.<ref name="EPI site" />
* Decreases the cost of government social welfare programs by increasing incomes for the lowest-paid.<ref name="EPI site" />
* Encourages people to join the workforce rather than pursuing money through illegal means, e.g. , [[Illegal drug trade|selling illegal drugs]]<ref>{{cite web |url=http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=545382 |title=Youth Crime and the Minimum Wage by Andrew Kallem :: SSRN |publisher=Papers.ssrn.com |date= |accessdate=October 5, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.epi.org/publications/entry/books_crimeandwork/ |title=Crime and work: What we can learn from the low-wage labor market &#124; Economic Policy Institute |publisher=Epi.org |date=July 1, 2000 |accessdate=October 5, 2011}}</ref>
* Encourages efficiency and automation of industry.<ref>[[Bernard Semmel]], ''Imperialism and Social Reform: English Social-Imperial Thought 1895–1914'' (London: Allen and Unwin, 1960), p. 63.</ref>
* Removes low paying jobs, forcing workers to train for, and move to, higher paying jobs.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.itif.org/pressrelease/itif-report-shows-self-service-technology-new-force-economic-life |title=ITIF Report Shows Self-service Technology a New Force in Economic Life &#124; The Information Technology & Innovation Foundation |publisher=Itif.org |date=April 14, 2010 |accessdate=October 5, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://iis-db.stanford.edu/evnts/4651/TechnologyandLaborRegulations.pdf |title=Technology and Labor Regulations 1 |format=PDF |date= |accessdate=March 1, 2012}}</ref>
* Increases technological development. Costly technology that increases business efficiency is more appealing as the price of labour increases.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/labour/employment_standards/fls/research/research11/page03.shtml |title=Minimum Wages in canada: theory, evidence and policy |publisher=Hrsdc.gc.ca |date=March 7, 2008 |accessdate=October 5, 2011}}</ref>
 
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;Arguments against Minimum Wage Laws
Opponents of the minimum wage claim it has these effects:
* As a labor market analogue of political-economic protectionism, it excludes low cost competitors from labor markets and hampers firms in reducing wage costs during trade downturns. This generates various industrial-economic inefficiencies.<ref>Abbott, Lewis F. ''Statutory Minimum Wage Controls: A Critical Review of their Effects on Labour Markets, Employment, and Incomes''. ISR Publications, Manchester UK, 2nd. edn. 2000. ISBN 978-0-906321-22-5. [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=EZXStcdlFG8C&dq=isbn:0906321220]</ref>
* Hurts small business more than large business.<ref name="Llewellyn H. Rockwell Jr">{{cite web |author=Llewellyn H. Rockwell Jr. |url=http://www.mises.org/story/1950 |title=Wal-Mart Warms to the State - Mises Institute |publisher=Mises.org |date=October 28, 2005 |accessdate=October 5, 2011}}</ref>
* Reduces quantity demanded of workers, either through a reduction in the number of hours worked by individuals, or through a reduction in the number of jobs.<ref>Tupy, Marian L. [http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/tupy200405140912.asp ''Minimum Interference''], National Review Online, May 14, 2004</ref><ref name = "The Wages of Politics">{{cite news |url=http://www.opinionjournal.com/weekend/hottopic/?id=110009232 |title = The Wages of Politics |work = [[Wall Street Journal]]}}</ref>
* May cause price [[inflation]] as businesses try to compensate by raising the prices of the goods being sold.<ref>{{cite web |last=Messmore |first=Ryan |url=http://www.heritage.org/Research/Labor/BG1162.cfm |title=Increasing the Mandated Minimum Wage: Who Pays the Price? |publisher=Heritage.org |date= |accessdate=October 5, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |author=Art Carden |url=http://www.mises.org/story/2377 |title=Why Wal-Mart Matters - Mises Institute |publisher=Mises.org |date= |accessdate=October 5, 2011}}</ref>
* Benefits some workers at the expense of the poorest and least productive.<ref name="cato.org">"Will have only negative effects on the distribution of [[economic justice]]. Minimum-wage legislation, by its very nature, benefits some at the expense of the least experienced, least productive, and poorest workers." [http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa106.html (Cato)]</ref>
* Can result in the exclusion of certain groups (ethnic, gender etc.) from the labor force.<ref>{{cite book |title=South Africa's War Against Capitalism |last=Williams |first=Walter |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1989 |publisher=Praeger |location=New York |isbn=0-275-93179-X |pages= }}</ref>
* Small firms with limited payroll budgets cannot offer their most valuable employees fair and attractive wages above unskilled workers paid the artificially high minimum, and see a rising hurdle-cost of adding workers.<ref name="Llewellyn H. Rockwell Jr"/>
* Is less effective than other methods (e.g. the [[Earned Income Tax Credit]]) at reducing poverty, and is more damaging to businesses than those other methods.<ref name="economist2006">[http://www.economist.com/world/na/displaystory.cfm?story_id=8090466 A blunt instrument], ''[[The Economist]]'', October 26, 2006 {{en icon}}</ref>
* Discourages further education among the poor by enticing people to enter the job market.<ref name="economist2006"/>
* Discriminates against, through pricing out, less qualified workers (including newcomers to the labor market, e.g. young workers) by keeping them from accumulating work experience and qualifications, hence potentially graduating to higher wages later.
* Results in jobs moving to other areas or countries which allow lower-cost labor.
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== منابع ==