تفاوت میان نسخه‌های «ادراک زمان»

جز
ربات:حذف برچسب بدون کاربرد، removed: </cite با استفاده از AWB
جز (ربات:مرتب‌سازی عنوان‌ها+نشانی+)
جز (ربات:حذف برچسب بدون کاربرد، removed: </cite با استفاده از AWB)
{{تمیزکاری}}
[[پرونده:Swatch_Irony_angle_belowSwatch Irony angle below.jpg|راست|بندانگشتی|یک ساعت کوارتزی عصر مدرن]]
'''ادراک زمان''' یک زمینهٔ مطالعاتی در [[روان‌شناسی|روانشناسی]] و [[علوم اعصاب]] است. ادراک زمان به تجربه ذهنی از زندگی اشاره دارد:
[[زمان]]. زمان برای هر شخصی به شکل فاصلهٔ بین وقایع و یا طول یک اتفاق خاص مفهوم پیدا می‌کند. فاصله زمانی بین دو اتفاق پی در پی در مغز انسان با یک طول مشخص فهم می‌شود. ادراک افراد مختلف از یک زمان ثابت می‌تواند متفاوت باشد. فهم شخص دیگر از زمان را نمی‌توان به طور مستقیم تجربه کرده و یا درک کرد، اما می‌توان آن را مورد مطالعه و استنباط قرار داد. زمان ادراک شده توسط مغز را می‌توان تحت شرایط خاص خاصی به هم ریخت. این به هم ریختگی‌های زمانی که در برخی مطالعات علمی انجام می‌شوند به ما کمک می‌کند تا مکانیسم نحوهٔ ادراک زمان را بهتر بفهمیم.
 
== نظریه‌ها ==
William J. Friedman (1993) نیز تقابل دو نظریه برای حس زمان را مطرح کرد:<ref name="plato"><cite class="citation web">Le Poidevin R. [http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/time-experience "The Experience and Perception of Time"]<span class="reference-accessdate">. </span></cite></ref><ref name="Friedman_1990">{{Cite book|title=About time: inventing the fourth dimension|last=Friedman W|publisher=MIT Press|year=1990|isbn=0-262-06133-3|location=Cambridge, Mass.}}</ref><ref name="Friedman_1993">{{Cite journal|title=Memory for the time of past events|journal=Psychological Bulletin|issue=1|doi=10.1037/0033-2909.113.1.44|year=1993|volume=113|pages=44–66}}</ref>
 
== دیدگاه‌های فلسفی ==
=== اثر عجیب و غریب ===
== منابع ==
{{پانویس|35em|refs=<ref name=andersen>{{cite journal | last1= Andersen|first1=Holly | last2=Grush|first2=Rick | title = A brief history of time-consciousness: historical precursors to James and Husserl | journal = Journal of the History of Philosophy | date=2009 | volume=47 | issue=2 | pages=277–307 | url=http://mind.ucsd.edu/papers/bhtc/Andersen&Grush.pdf | format=PDF | accessdate=2008-02-02 | doi=10.1353/hph.0.0118}}</ref><ref name=arzy>{{cite journal | vauthors = Arzy S, Molnar-Szakacs I, Blanke O | title = Self in time: imagined self-location influences neural activity related to mental time travel | journal = J. Neurosci. | volume = 28 | issue = 25 | pages = 6502–7 |date=June 2008 | pmid = 18562621 | doi = 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5712-07.2008}}</ref><ref name=cheng>{{cite journal | vauthors = Cheng RK, MacDonald CJ, Meck WH | title = Differential effects of cocaine and ketamine on time estimation: implications for neurobiological models of interval timing | journal = Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. | volume = 85 | issue = 1 | pages = 114–22 |date=September 2006 | pmid = 16920182 | doi = 10.1016/j.pbb.2006.07.019}}</ref><ref name=davalos>{{cite journal | vauthors = Davalos DB, Kisley MA, Ross RG | title = Deficits in auditory and visual temporal perception in schizophrenia | journal = Cogn Neuropsychiatry | volume = 7 | issue = 4 | pages = 273–82 |date=November 2002 | pmid = 16571542 | doi = 10.1080/13546800143000230}}</ref><ref name=franck>{{cite journal | vauthors = Franck N, Posada A, Pichon S, Haggard P | title = Altered subjective time of events in schizophrenia | journal = J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. | volume = 193 | issue = 5 | pages = 350–3 |date=May 2005 | pmid = 15870620 | doi =10.1097/01.nmd.0000161699.76032.09}}</ref> <!---ref name=gruber>{{cite book | editor = Saniga M, Buccheri R, Di Gesù V | title = Studies on the structure of time: from physics to psycho(patho)logy | publisher = Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers | location = New York | year = 2000 | page = 54 | isbn = 0-306-46439-X | author = Gruber RP, Wagner LF, Block RA | chapter = Subjective Time Versus Proper (Clock) Time | chapterurl = http://books.google.com/books?id=LMsDqsvcxckC&pg=PA54}}</ref---><ref name=jaldow>{{cite journal | vauthors = Jaldow EJ, Oakley DA, Davey GC | title = Performance of Decorticated Rats on Fixed Interval and Fixed Time Schedules | journal = Eur. J. Neurosci. | volume = 1 | issue = 5 | pages = 461–470 |date=September 1989 | pmid = 12106131 | doi =10.1111/j.1460-9568.1989.tb00352.x}}</ref><ref name=james>James, W. (1893). [http://books.google.com/books?id=JLcAAAAAMAAJ The principles of psychology]. New York: H. Holt and Company. Page 609.</ref><ref name=jcp>{{cite journal | title=It Seems Like Only Yesterday: The Nature and Consequences of Telescoping Errors in Marketing Research | publisher=Journal of Consumer Psychology | url=http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst;jsessionid=KgPbgnYGLQyyHQtdPQbVMGHm5wp3tr94mQLkBF4hTvYJ09dlJx5N!-1941634607!-2081211395?docId=77055094%7C}}</ref><ref name=just>{{cite web |url=http://content.yudu.com/Library/A2ac0l/JustCromerJuly132013/resources/index.htm?referrerUrl=http://free.yudu.com/item/details/1044663/Just-Cromer-July-13--2013 |title=David dives in |date =13 Jul 2013 |accessdate=13 July 2013 |publisher=justRegional publishing}}</ref><ref name=kelly>Anonymous (E. Robert Kelly), ''The Alternative: A Study in Psychology''. London: Macmillan and Co. ,1882.</ref><ref name=levy>{{cite journal | vauthors = Levy F, Swanson JM | title = Timing, space and ADHD: the dopamine theory revisited | journal = Aust N Z J Psychiatry | volume = 35 | issue = 4 | pages = 504–11 |date=August 2001 | pmid = 11531733 | doi =10.1046/j.1440-1614.2001.00923.x}}</ref><ref name=mackintosh>{{cite book | author = Mackintosh NJ | title = Animal learning and cognition | publisher = Academic Press | location = Boston | year = 1994 | pages = | isbn = 0-12-161953-2}}</ref> <!--ref name=morrone>{{vcite2 journal | vauthors = Morrone MC, Ross J, Burr D | title = Saccadic eye movements cause compression of time as well as space | journal = Nat. Neurosci. | volume = 8 | issue = 7 | pages = 950–4 |date=July 2005 | pmid = 15965472 | doi = 10.1038/nn1488}}</ref--><ref name=plato>{{cite web|url=http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/time-experience| author = Le Poidevin R | title = The Experience and Perception of Time|accessdate=2009-10-22}}</ref><ref name=ncbi2>{{cite journal | vauthors = Wearden JH, Penton-Voak IS | title = Feeling the heat: body temperature and the rate of subjective time, revisited | journal = Q J Exp Psychol B | volume = 48 | issue = 2 | pages = 129–41 |date=May 1995 | pmid = 7597195 | doi =}}</ref><ref name=newsci>{{cite journal | vauthors = Holmes B | title = Why time flies in old age | journal = New Scientist magazine | volume = | issue = 2057 | pages = |date=November 1996 | url = http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg15220571.700-why-time-flies-in-old-age.html}}</ref><ref name=pastor>{{cite journal | vauthors = Pastor MA, Artieda J, Jahanshahi M, Obeso JA | title = Time estimation and reproduction is abnormal in Parkinson's disease | journal = Brain | volume = 115 | issue = 1| pages = 211–25 |date=February 1992 | pmid = 1559155 | doi =10.1093/brain/115.1.211}}</ref><ref name=petitot>"The Specious Present: A Neurophenomenology of Time Consciousness." In Petitot, Varela, Pacoud & Roy (eds.), ''Naturalizing Phenomenology''. Stanford University Press.</ref><ref name=plato>{{cite web|url=http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/time-experience| author = Le Poidevin R | title = The Experience and Perception of Time|accessdate=2009-10-22}}</ref><ref name=sacks>{{cite book | author = Sacks OW | title = Awakenings | publisher = Vintage Books | location = New York | year = 1999 | pages = | isbn = 0-375-70405-1}}</ref><ref name=smith>{{cite journal | vauthors = Smith A, Taylor E, Rogers JW, Newman S, Rubia K | title = Evidence for a pure time perception deficit in children with ADHD | journal = J Child Psychol Psychiatry | volume = 43 | issue = 4 | pages = 529–42 |date=May 2002 | pmid = 12030598 | doi =10.1111/1469-7610.00043}}</ref> <!--<ref name=terao>{{vcite2 journal | vauthors = Terao M, Watanabe J, Yagi A, Nishida S | title = Reduction of stimulus visibility compresses apparent time intervals | journal = Nat. Neurosci. | volume = 11 | issue = 5 | pages = 541–2 |date=May 2008 | pmid = 18408716 | doi = 10.1038/nn.2111}}</ref> --><ref name=tinklenberg>{{cite journal | vauthors = Tinklenberg JR, Roth WT, Kopell BS | title = Marijuana and ethanol: differential effects on time perception, heart rate, and subjective response | journal = Psychopharmacology (Berl.) | volume = 49 | issue = 3 | pages = 275–9 |date=September 1976 | pmid = 826945 | doi =10.1007/BF00426830}}</ref><ref name=wada>Wada Y, Masuda T, Noguchi K, 2005, "Temporal illusion called 'kappa effect' in event perception" Perception 34 ECVP Abstract Supplement</ref><ref name=wittmann1>{{cite journal | vauthors = Wittmann M, Carter O, Hasler F, Cahn BR, Grimberg U, Spring P, Hell D, Flohr H, Vollenweider FX | title = Effects of psilocybin on time perception and temporal control of behaviour in humans | journal = J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) | volume = 21 | issue = 1 | pages = 50–64 |date=January 2007 | pmid = 16714323 | doi = 10.1177/0269881106065859}}</ref><ref name=wittmann2>{{cite journal | vauthors = Wittmann M, Leland DS, Churan J, Paulus MP | title = Impaired time perception and motor timing in stimulant-dependent subjects | journal = Drug Alcohol Depend | volume = 90 | issue = 2–3 | pages = 183–92 |date=October 2007 | pmid = 17434690 | pmc = 1997301 | doi = 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2007.03.005}}</ref><ref name=yarrow>{{cite journal | vauthors = Yarrow K, Haggard P, Heal R, Brown P, Rothwell JC | title = Illusory perceptions of space and time preserve cross-saccadic perceptual continuity | journal = Nature | volume = 414 | issue = 6861 | pages = 302–5 |date=November 2001 | pmid = 11713528 | doi = 10.1038/35104551}}</ref><ref name=natneuro>{{cite journal |vauthors=Rao SM, Mayer AR, Harrington DL | title = The evolution of brain activation during temporal processing | journal = Nature Neuroscience | volume = 4 | issue = 3 | pages = 317–323 | date = 2001 | doi = 10.1038/85191 | laysource = Nature Neuroscience | layurl = http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/v4/n3/abs/nn0301_317.htm | pmid=11224550}}</ref>}}
 
[[رده:ادراک]]
[[رده:روان‌شناسی اجتماعی]]