انقلابی: تفاوت میان نسخه‌ها

۲٬۳۲۲ بایت حذف‌شده ،  ۵ سال پیش
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== تعریف ==
این لفظ -چه به صورت اسم و چه صفت-معمولاً به زمینهٔ [[سیاست]] اعمال می‌شود، و گاه گاهی در زمینهٔ [[علم]]، [[اختراع]] یا [[هنر]] به کار می‌رود. در سیاست، یک انقلابی کسیس است که از تغییر شگرف، سریع و آنی حمایت می‌کند، در حالی که یک [[اصلاح‌طلبی|اصلاح‌طلب]] کسی است که از تغییر تدریجی تر و پله به پله حمایت می‌کند. [[محافظه‌کاری|محافظه‌کار]] کسی است که عموماً با چنان تغییراتی مخالفت می‌کند. [[ارتجاع (علوم سیاسی)|مرتجع]] کسی است که می‌خواهد چیزها به گونه‌ای که پیش از وقوع تغییر بودند برگردند.
 
== Revolution and ideology ==
{{دست‌اول|date=October 2015}}
According to sociologist [[James Chowning Davies]], political revolutionaries may be classified in two ways:
# According to the ''goals'' of the revolution they propose. Usually, these goals are part of a certain [[ایدئولوژی]]. In theory, each ideology could generate its own brand of revolutionaries. In practice, most political revolutionaries have been either [[آنارشیسم]]، [[کمونیسم]]، [[دموکراسی]]، [[فاشیسم]]، [[اسلام‌گرایی]]، [[لیبرالیسم]]، [[لیبرترینیسم]]، [[ملی‌گرایی]]، [[Republicanism|republicans]], or [[سوسیالیسم]].
# According to the ''methods'' they propose to use. This divides revolutionaries in two broad groups: Those who advocate a violent revolution, and those who are [[صلح‌جویی]]s.
 
The revolutionary anarchists [[میخائیل باکونین]] and [[Sergey Nechayev]] argued in ''[[Catechism of a Revolutionary]]'':
<blockquote>
"The Revolutionary is a doomed man. He has no private interests, no affairs, sentiments, ties, property nor even a name of his own. His entire being is devoured by one purpose, one thought, one passion—the revolution. Heart and soul, not merely by word but by deed, he has severed every link with the social order and with the entire civilized world; with the laws, good manners, conventions, and morality of that world. He is its merciless enemy...."<ref>[http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSnechayev.htm Nechayev], Spartacus Educational website by John Simkin</ref></blockquote>
 
[[مارکسیسم]] revolutionary [[چه گوارا]] said this about revolutionaries: "At the risk of seeming ridiculous, let me say that the true revolutionary is guided by a great feeling of love.... We must strive every day so that this love of living humanity will be transformed into actual deeds, into acts that serve as examples, as a moving force."<ref>[http://www.marxists.org/archive/guevara/1965/03/man-socialism.htm "Socialism and Man in Cuba"] A letter to [[Carlos Quijano]], editor of ''[[Marcha (newspaper)|Marcha]]'', a weekly newspaper published in Montevideo, Uruguay; published as "From Algiers, for Marcha: The Cuban Revolution Today" by [[چه گوارا]] on March 12, 1965</ref>
 
== جستارهای وابسته ==