تفاوت میان نسخه‌های «ال‌ال‌ام»

بدون خلاصه ویرایش
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'''ال‌ال‌ام''' ({{Lang|la|Magister Legum}}) ('''M.L.''' یا '''LL.M.'''; [[زبان لاتین]] ''{{Lang|la|Magister Legum}}'' یا ''{{Lang|la|Legum Magister}}'') یک مدرک تحصیلات تکمیلی است که کسانی که یا دارای مدرک دانشگاهی کارشناسی حقوقند، یا دارندگان مدارک حرفه‌ای حقوق، یا مدرک کارشناسی در یک رشتهٔ مرتبط آن را تحصیل می‌کنند. در برخی حوزه‌های قضایی این مدرک مدرک حرفه‌ای مقدماتی برای پذیرش به شغل حقوقی است.
 
در بیشتر ایالات و کشورها، برای وکیل شدن و اشتغال به کار حقوقی شخص باید ابتدا مدرک حقوق دریافت کند. با این که در بیشتر کشورهای کامن لا مدرک LL.B. لازم است، آمریکا و کانادا برای اشتغال به امر حقوق عموماً مدرک دکترای حرفه‌ای یا [[جی دی]] را لازم می‌دانند.<ref>http://work.chron.com/jd-attorney-10582.html</ref><ref>http://www.law.utoronto.ca/admissions/youth-outreach/so-you-want-become-lawyer</ref> [[جی دی]] (یک [[دکترا]]<ref name="aaude2008">{{cite web |last=Association of American Universities Data Exchange |url=http://aaude.org/documents/public/reference/glossary-graded.doc |title=Glossary of Terms for Graduate Education |accessdate=2010-09-01}}</ref><ref name="nsf2006">{{cite journal|last=National Science Foundation |year=2006 |url=http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/infbrief/nsf06312/nsf06312.pdf |series=NSF |title=Time to Degree of U.S. Research Doctorate Recipients |journal=InfoBrief, Science Resource Statistics |volume=06-312 |page=7 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160308130032/http://spellmirelaw.com/ |archivedate=8 March 2016 |df=}} Under "Data notes" this article mentions that the J.D. is a professional doctorate.</ref><ref name="sdcba1969">{{cite web |last=San Diego County Bar Association |year=1969 |url=http://www.sdcba.org/ethics/ethicsopinion69-5.html |title=Ethics Opinion 1969-5 |accessdate=2008-05-26}}. Under "other references" differences between academic and professional doctorates, and contains a statement that the J.D. is a professional doctorate</ref><ref name="utah2006">{{cite web|last=University of Utah |year=2006 |url=http://www.gradschool.utah.edu/catalog/degree.php |title=University of Utah&nbsp;– The Graduate School&nbsp;– Graduate Handbook |accessdate=2008-05-28 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080626081148/http://www.gradschool.utah.edu/catalog/degree.php |archivedate=26 June 2008 |df=}}</ref><ref name="gfme2008">{{cite web |last=German Federal Ministry of Education |url=http://www.blk-bonn.de/papers/hochschulsystem_usa.pdf |title=U.S. Higher Education / Evaluation of the Almanac Chronicle of Higher Education |accessdate=2008-05-26 |archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20080413192035/http://www.blk-bonn.de/papers/hochschulsystem_usa.pdf |archivedate = April 13, 2008}} Report by the German Federal Ministry of Education analysing the Chronicle of Higher Education from the U.S. and stating that the J.D. is a professional doctorate.</ref><ref name="eb2002">{{cite book |year=2002 |title=Encyclopædia Britannica |volume=3 |page=962:1a}}</ref> andو اولین [[درجات تخصصی|درجه تخصصی]]<ref name="usdoe2008">{{cite web|last=U.S. Department of Education|year=2008|url=http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ous/international/usnei/us/edlite-professional-studies.html |title=USNEI-Structure of U.S. Education - Graduate/Post Education Levels|accessdate=2008-05-25 |archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20071214142648/http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ous/international/usnei/us/edlite-professional-studies.html |archivedate = 2007-12-14}}</ref><ref name="cbb1999">{{cite book|last=College Blue Book|year=1999|title=Degrees Offered by College and Subject|location=New York|publisher=MacMillan|page=817}}</ref> graduateتحصیلات degreeتکمیلی<ref name="ucb2008">{{cite web|last=University of California, Berkeley |url=http://www.berkeley.edu/catalog/grad/degrees.html |title=General Catalog – Graduate Education – Graduate Degrees and Certificates |accessdate=2008-05-25 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080521225217/http://www.berkeley.edu/catalog/grad/degrees.html |archivedate=21 May 2008 |df=}}</ref><ref name="usc1995">{{cite web|last=University of Southern California|year=1995|url=http://www.usc.edu/dept/publications/cat95/acadpol/degreeprog.html |title=Undergraduate and Graduate Degree Programs|accessdate=2008-05-25 |archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20080422082839/http://www.usc.edu/dept/publications/cat95/acadpol/degreeprog.html |archivedate = 2008-04-22}}</ref><ref name="unimelb2008">{{cite web|last=University of Melbourne|url=http://jd.law.unimelb.edu.au/go/about-us/melbourne-jd|title=About Use - The Melbourne JD|accessdate=2008-05-26}}</ref> در [[حقوق]] است.
در بیشتر ایالات و کشورها، برای وکیل شدن و اشتغال به کار حقوقی شخص باید ابتدا مدرک حقوق دریافت کند. با این که در بیشتر کشورهای کامن لا مدرک LL.B. لازم است، آمریکا و کانادا برای اشتغال به امر حقوق عموماً مدرک دکترای حرفه‌ای یا [[جی دی]] را لازم می‌دانند.<ref>http://work.chron.com/jd-attorney-10582.html</ref><ref>http://www.law.utoronto.ca/admissions/youth-outreach/so-you-want-become-lawyer</ref>
 
[[جی دی]] (یک [[دکترا]]<ref name="aaude2008">{{cite web |last=Association of American Universities Data Exchange |url=http://aaude.org/documents/public/reference/glossary-graded.doc |title=Glossary of Terms for Graduate Education |accessdate=2010-09-01}}</ref><ref name="nsf2006">{{cite journal|last=National Science Foundation |year=2006 |url=http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/infbrief/nsf06312/nsf06312.pdf |series=NSF |title=Time to Degree of U.S. Research Doctorate Recipients |journal=InfoBrief, Science Resource Statistics |volume=06-312 |page=7 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160308130032/http://spellmirelaw.com/ |archivedate=8 March 2016 |df=}} Under "Data notes" this article mentions that the J.D. is a professional doctorate.</ref><ref name="sdcba1969">{{cite web |last=San Diego County Bar Association |year=1969 |url=http://www.sdcba.org/ethics/ethicsopinion69-5.html |title=Ethics Opinion 1969-5 |accessdate=2008-05-26}}. Under "other references" differences between academic and professional doctorates, and contains a statement that the J.D. is a professional doctorate</ref><ref name="utah2006">{{cite web|last=University of Utah |year=2006 |url=http://www.gradschool.utah.edu/catalog/degree.php |title=University of Utah&nbsp;– The Graduate School&nbsp;– Graduate Handbook |accessdate=2008-05-28 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080626081148/http://www.gradschool.utah.edu/catalog/degree.php |archivedate=26 June 2008 |df=}}</ref><ref name="gfme2008">{{cite web |last=German Federal Ministry of Education |url=http://www.blk-bonn.de/papers/hochschulsystem_usa.pdf |title=U.S. Higher Education / Evaluation of the Almanac Chronicle of Higher Education |accessdate=2008-05-26 |archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20080413192035/http://www.blk-bonn.de/papers/hochschulsystem_usa.pdf |archivedate = April 13, 2008}} Report by the German Federal Ministry of Education analysing the Chronicle of Higher Education from the U.S. and stating that the J.D. is a professional doctorate.</ref><ref name="eb2002">{{cite book |year=2002 |title=Encyclopædia Britannica |volume=3 |page=962:1a}}</ref> and [[درجات تخصصی]]<ref name="usdoe2008">{{cite web|last=U.S. Department of Education|year=2008|url=http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ous/international/usnei/us/edlite-professional-studies.html |title=USNEI-Structure of U.S. Education - Graduate/Post Education Levels|accessdate=2008-05-25 |archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20071214142648/http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ous/international/usnei/us/edlite-professional-studies.html |archivedate = 2007-12-14}}</ref><ref name="cbb1999">{{cite book|last=College Blue Book|year=1999|title=Degrees Offered by College and Subject|location=New York|publisher=MacMillan|page=817}}</ref> graduate degree<ref name="ucb2008">{{cite web|last=University of California, Berkeley |url=http://www.berkeley.edu/catalog/grad/degrees.html |title=General Catalog – Graduate Education – Graduate Degrees and Certificates |accessdate=2008-05-25 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080521225217/http://www.berkeley.edu/catalog/grad/degrees.html |archivedate=21 May 2008 |df=}}</ref><ref name="usc1995">{{cite web|last=University of Southern California|year=1995|url=http://www.usc.edu/dept/publications/cat95/acadpol/degreeprog.html |title=Undergraduate and Graduate Degree Programs|accessdate=2008-05-25 |archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20080422082839/http://www.usc.edu/dept/publications/cat95/acadpol/degreeprog.html |archivedate = 2008-04-22}}</ref><ref name="unimelb2008">{{cite web|last=University of Melbourne|url=http://jd.law.unimelb.edu.au/go/about-us/melbourne-jd|title=About Use - The Melbourne JD|accessdate=2008-05-26}}</ref> در [[حقوق]] است.
 
اگر شخص علاقمند باشد از طریق پژوهش در یک حوزهٔ خاص حقوق دانش تخصصی کسب کند، می‌تواند پس از اخذ جی دی تحصیلاتش را در یک برنامه ال‌ال‌ام ادامه دهد.