تفاوت میان نسخه‌های «ال‌ال‌ام»

جز
ربات:مرتب‌سازی عنوان‌ها+املا+مرتب+تمیز+
جز (ربات:مرتب‌سازی عنوان‌ها+املا+مرتب+تمیز+)
در بیشتر ایالات و کشورها، برای وکیل شدن و اشتغال به کار حقوقی شخص باید ابتدا مدرک حقوق دریافت کند. با این که در بیشتر کشورهای کامن لا مدرک LL.B. لازم است، آمریکا و کانادا برای اشتغال به امر حقوق عموماً مدرک دکترای حرفه‌ای یا [[جی دی]] را لازم می‌دانند.<ref>http://work.chron.com/jd-attorney-10582.html</ref><ref>http://www.law.utoronto.ca/admissions/youth-outreach/so-you-want-become-lawyer</ref> [[جی دی]] یک [[دکترا]]<ref name="aaude2008">{{cite web |last=Association of American Universities Data Exchange |url=http://aaude.org/documents/public/reference/glossary-graded.doc |title=Glossary of Terms for Graduate Education |accessdate=2010-09-01}}</ref><ref name="nsf2006">{{cite journal|last=National Science Foundation |year=2006 |url=http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/infbrief/nsf06312/nsf06312.pdf |series=NSF |title=Time to Degree of U.S. Research Doctorate Recipients |journal=InfoBrief, Science Resource Statistics |volume=06-312 |page=7 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160308130032/http://spellmirelaw.com/ |archivedate=8 March 2016 |df=}} Under "Data notes" this article mentions that the J.D. is a professional doctorate.</ref><ref name="sdcba1969">{{cite web |last=San Diego County Bar Association |year=1969 |url=http://www.sdcba.org/ethics/ethicsopinion69-5.html |title=Ethics Opinion 1969-5 |accessdate=2008-05-26}}. Under "other references" differences between academic and professional doctorates, and contains a statement that the J.D. is a professional doctorate</ref><ref name="utah2006">{{cite web|last=University of Utah |year=2006 |url=http://www.gradschool.utah.edu/catalog/degree.php |title=University of Utah&nbsp;– The Graduate School&nbsp;– Graduate Handbook |accessdate=2008-05-28 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080626081148/http://www.gradschool.utah.edu/catalog/degree.php |archivedate=26 June 2008 |df=}}</ref><ref name="gfme2008">{{cite web |last=German Federal Ministry of Education |url=http://www.blk-bonn.de/papers/hochschulsystem_usa.pdf |title=U.S. Higher Education / Evaluation of the Almanac Chronicle of Higher Education |accessdate=2008-05-26 |archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20080413192035/http://www.blk-bonn.de/papers/hochschulsystem_usa.pdf |archivedate = April 13, 2008}} Report by the German Federal Ministry of Education analysing the Chronicle of Higher Education from the U.S. and stating that the J.D. is a professional doctorate.</ref><ref name="eb2002">{{cite book |year=2002 |title=Encyclopædia Britannica |volume=3 |page=962:1a}}</ref> و اولین [[درجات تخصصی|درجه تخصصی]]<ref name="usdoe2008">{{cite web|last=U.S. Department of Education|year=2008|url=http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ous/international/usnei/us/edlite-professional-studies.html |title=USNEI-Structure of U.S. Education - Graduate/Post Education Levels|accessdate=2008-05-25 |archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20071214142648/http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ous/international/usnei/us/edlite-professional-studies.html |archivedate = 2007-12-14}}</ref><ref name="cbb1999">{{cite book|last=College Blue Book|year=1999|title=Degrees Offered by College and Subject|location=New York|publisher=MacMillan|page=817}}</ref> تحصیلات تکمیلی<ref name="ucb2008">{{cite web|last=University of California, Berkeley |url=http://www.berkeley.edu/catalog/grad/degrees.html |title=General Catalog – Graduate Education – Graduate Degrees and Certificates |accessdate=2008-05-25 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080521225217/http://www.berkeley.edu/catalog/grad/degrees.html |archivedate=21 May 2008 |df=}}</ref><ref name="usc1995">{{cite web|last=University of Southern California|year=1995|url=http://www.usc.edu/dept/publications/cat95/acadpol/degreeprog.html |title=Undergraduate and Graduate Degree Programs|accessdate=2008-05-25 |archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20080422082839/http://www.usc.edu/dept/publications/cat95/acadpol/degreeprog.html |archivedate = 2008-04-22}}</ref><ref name="unimelb2008">{{cite web|last=University of Melbourne|url=http://jd.law.unimelb.edu.au/go/about-us/melbourne-jd|title=About Use - The Melbourne JD|accessdate=2008-05-26}}</ref> در [[حقوق]] است.
 
اگر شخص علاقمندعلاقه‌مند باشد از طریق پژوهش در یک حوزهٔ خاص حقوق دانش تخصصی کسب کند، می‌تواند پس از اخذ جی دی تحصیلاتش را در یک برنامه ال‌ال‌ام ادامه دهد.
 
== منابع ==
{{پانویس|چپ‌چین=بله}}
* {{یادکرد-ویکی|پیوند =//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Master_of_Laws&oldid=785772973|عنوان = Master of Laws|زبان =انگلیسی|بازیابی =۶ ژوئیه ۲۰۱۷}}
 
[[رده:مدارک تحصیلی حقوق]]
[[رده:کارشناسی ارشد]]
[[رده:مدارک تحصیلی حقوق]]
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