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== پانویس ==
{{پانویس|چپ‌چین=بله}}
 
== کتابشناسی ==
{{refbegin|35em|چپ‌چین=بله}}
* {{Citation | last=Apostol | first=Tom M. | author-link=Tom M. Apostol | title=Calculus, Vol. 1: One-Variable Calculus with an Introduction to Linear Algebra | year=1967 | edition=2nd | publisher=Wiley | isbn=978-0-471-00005-1 | url=https://archive.org/details/calculus01apos }}
* {{Citation | last=Bourbaki| first=Nicolas | author-link=Nicolas Bourbaki | title=Integration I | year=2004 | publisher=Springer Verlag | isbn=3-540-41129-1}}. In particular chapters III and IV.
* {{Citation | last=Burton | first=David M. | title=The History of Mathematics: An Introduction | edition=6th | year=2005<!--November 8--> | publisher=McGraw-Hill | isbn=978-0-07-305189-5 | page=359}}
* {{Citation | last=Cajori | first=Florian | author-link=Florian Cajori | title=A History Of Mathematical Notations Volume II | year=1929 | publisher=Open Court Publishing | url=https://archive.org/details/historyofmathema027671mbp | isbn=978-0-486-67766-8 | pages=247–252}}
* {{Citation | last1=Dahlquist | first1=Germund | author1-link=Germund Dahlquist | last2=Björck | first2=Åke | title=Numerical Methods in Scientific Computing, Volume I | publisher=[[Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics|SIAM]] | location=Philadelphia | year=2008 | url=http://www.mai.liu.se/~akbjo/NMbook.html | chapter=Chapter&nbsp;5: Numerical Integration | url-status=dead | archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070615185623/http://www.mai.liu.se/~akbjo/NMbook.html | archivedate=2007-06-15 }}
* {{Citation | last = Folland | first = Gerald B.| title=Real Analysis: Modern Techniques and Their Applications | edition=1st | publisher=John Wiley & Sons | year = 1984 | isbn=978-0-471-80958-6 }}
* {{Citation | last=Fourier | first=Jean Baptiste Joseph | author-link=Joseph Fourier | title=Théorie analytique de la chaleur | year=1822 | publisher=Chez Firmin Didot, père et fils | url=https://books.google.com/books?id=TDQJAAAAIAAJ | page=§231}}<br />Available in translation as {{citation | last=Fourier | first=Joseph | title=The analytical theory of heat | year=1878<!--original 1822--> | publisher=Cambridge University Press | url=https://archive.org/details/analyticaltheory00fourrich | others=Freeman, Alexander (trans.) | pages=200–201}}
* {{Citation | editor-last=Heath | editor-first=T. L. | editor-link=Thomas Little Heath | title = The Works of Archimedes | year = 2002 | publisher = Dover | isbn = 978-0-486-42084-4 | url = https://archive.org/details/worksofarchimede029517mbp }}<br/>(Originally published by Cambridge University Press, 1897, based on J. L. Heiberg's Greek version.)
* {{Citation | last=Hildebrandt | first=T. H. | author-link= | title=Integration in abstract spaces | journal=[[Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society]] | volume=59 | year=1953 | pages=111–139 | url=http://projecteuclid.org/euclid.bams/1183517761 | issn=0273-0979 | issue=2 | doi=10.1090/S0002-9904-1953-09694-X}}
* {{Citation | last1=Kahaner | first1=David | last2=Moler | first2=Cleve | author2-link=Cleve Moler | last3=Nash | first3=Stephen | title=Numerical Methods and Software | year=1989 | publisher=Prentice Hall | chapter=Chapter&nbsp;5: Numerical Quadrature | isbn=978-0-13-627258-8 }}
*{{Citation | last=Kallio | first=Bruce Victor | title=A History of the Definite Integral | url=https://circle.ubc.ca/bitstream/id/132341/UBC_1966_A8%20K3.pdf | publisher = University of British Columbia | type = M.A. thesis | year=1966}}
*{{Citation | last=Katz | first=Victor J. | title=A History of Mathematics, Brief Version | publisher=[[Addison-Wesley]] | isbn=978-0-321-16193-2 | year=2004}}
* {{Citation | last=Leibniz | first=Gottfried Wilhelm | author-link=Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz | title=Der Briefwechsel von Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz mit Mathematikern. Erster Band | editor-last=Gerhardt | editor-first=Karl Immanuel | place=Berlin | publisher=Mayer &amp; Müller | year=1899 | url=http://name.umdl.umich.edu/AAX2762.0001.001}}
<!--
* ''Der Briefwechsel von Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz mit Mathematikern. Erster Band. Hrsg. von C. I. Gerhardt. Mit Unterstützung der Königl. Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.''<br />Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm, Freiherr von, 1646–1716., Gerhardt, Karl Immanuel, ed. 1816–1899, Berlin: Mayer & Müller, 1899. [http://name.umdl.umich.edu/AAX2762.0001.001]
-->
* {{citation|last1=Lieb|first1=Elliott|authorlink1=Elliott H. Lieb|last2=Loss|first2=Michael|author2-link=Michael Loss|title=Analysis|year=2001|edition=2nd|publisher=[[American Mathematical Society]]|series=[[Graduate Studies in Mathematics]]|volume=14|isbn=978-0821827833}}
* {{Citation | last=Miller | first=Jeff | title=Earliest Uses of Symbols of Calculus | url=http://jeff560.tripod.com/calculus.html | accessdate=2009-11-22}}
* {{Citation | last1=O’Connor | first1=J. J. | last2=Robertson | first2=E. F. | title=A history of the calculus | year=1996 | url=http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/The_rise_of_calculus.html | accessdate=2007-07-09 }}
* {{Citation | last=Rudin | first=Walter | author-link=Walter Rudin | title=Real and Complex Analysis | year=1987 | edition=International | publisher=McGraw-Hill | chapter=Chapter&nbsp;1: Abstract Integration | isbn=978-0-07-100276-9}}
* {{Citation | last=Saks | first=Stanisław | author-link=Stanisław Saks | title=Theory of the integral | url=http://matwbn.icm.edu.pl/kstresc.php?tom=7&wyd=10&jez= | edition= English translation by L. C. Young. With two additional notes by Stefan Banach. Second revised | publisher= Dover | place=New York | year=1964 }}
*{{citation | last1=Shea | first1=Marilyn | title=Biography of Zu Chongzhi |date = May 2007| url=http://hua.umf.maine.edu/China/astronomy/tianpage/0014ZuChongzhi9296bw.html | publisher=University of Maine | accessdate=9 January 2009}}
* {{citation|last=Siegmund-Schultze|first=Reinhard|chapter=Henri Lebesgue|title=Princeton Companion to Mathematics|editor=Timothy Gowers |editor2=June Barrow-Green |editor3=Imre Leader|year=2008|publisher=Princeton University Press}}.
* {{Citation | last1=Stoer | first1=Josef | last2=Bulirsch | first2=Roland | year=2002 | title=Introduction to Numerical Analysis | edition=3rd | publisher=Springer | chapter= Topics in Integration | isbn=978-0-387-95452-3 }}.
* {{Citation | author=W3C | year=2006<!--January--> | title=Arabic mathematical notation<!--W3C Interest Group Note 31--> | url=http://www.w3.org/TR/arabic-math/}}
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== پیوند به بیرون ==