تفاوت میان نسخه‌های «استیضاح»

۲۶ بایت اضافه‌شده ،  ۵ ماه پیش
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'''ستیضاح''' {{به انگلیسی|Impeachment}} فرآیندی است که طی آن یک [[قوه مقننه|نهاد قانونگذار]] یا هر دادگاه دیگری که به طوربه‌طور قانونی صلاحیت داشته باشد، اتهاماتی را علیه یک [[مسئول|مقام مسئول]] به دلیل سورفتار طرح میکندمی‌کند.<ref name="EBrit">{{Cite web|title=impeachment {{!}} Definition, Process, History, & Facts|url=https://www.britannica.com/topic/impeachment|access-date=2020-11-15|website=Encyclopedia Britannica|language=en}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|editor1-last=Landau|date=1996|language=English|edition=1996|page=322|isbn=978-0-308-10353-5|location=United States|publisher=Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc.|volume=1|editor1-first=Sidney|title=Funk & Wagnall's Standard Desk Dictionary|editor4-first=Ruth|editor4-last=Koenigsberg|editor3-first=Samuel|editor3-last=Davis|editor2-first=Sheila|editor2-last=Brantley|quote=1. To charge (a high public official) before a legally constituted tribunal with crime or misdemeanor in office. 2. To bring discredit upon the honesty or validity of.}}</ref> استیضاح ممکن است به عنوان یک فرآیندفرایند منحصر به فرد که شامل عناصر [[سیاست|سیاسی]] و [[قانون|حقوقی]] است تعریف شود.<ref name="GerhardtTheLaw">{{Cite web|author=[[Michael J. Gerhardt]]|title=Impeachment is the law. Saying 'political process' only helps Trump's narrative.|quote=while it's true that politics are bound up in how impeachment plays out, it’s a myth that impeachment is just political. Rather, it's the principal legal remedy that the Constitution expressly specifies to hold presidents accountable|url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/outlook/2019/12/14/impeachment-is-law-saying-political-process-only-helps-trumps-narrative/|newspaper=Washington Post}}</ref><ref name="Gerhardt3dedition">{{Cite book|publisher=University of Chicago Press|title=The Federal Impeachment Process: A Constitutional and Historical Analysis|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/The_Federal_Impeachment_Process/3d6NDwAAQBAJ|author=Michael J. Gerhardt|edition=3d|year=2019|pages=106–07|quote=The ratification debates support the conclusion that 'other high Crimes and Misdemeanors' were not limited to indictable offenses but rather included great offenses against the federal government. ... Justices James Wilson and Joseph Story expressed agreement with Hamilton's understanding of impeachment as a political proceeding and impeachable offenses as political crimes.}}</ref><ref name="Gerhardt20">{{Cite book|author=Gerhardt|first=Michael|title=Impeachment: What Everyone Needs to Know|publisher=Oxford University Press|year=2018|isbn=978-01909036570-19-090365-7|location=New York, N.Y.|page=20|lccn=2018013560|quote=Impeachment has elements of both legal and political proceedings. As a result, it is a unique process.|author-link=Michael Gerhardt}}</ref> از سال 1990۱۹۹۰ تا سال ،2020،۲۰۲۰ دستکم 272۲۷۲ استیضاح علیه 132۱۳۲ [[رئیس کشور|مقام دولتی]] در 63۶۳ کشور در جهان صورت گرفته استگرفته‌است.<ref>{{cite web|last1=Lawler|first1=David|title=What impeaching leaders looks like around the world|url=https://www.axios.com/impeachment-other-countries-4a5aee7f-90f9-43df-a7e7-cc76ca1f5dfd.html|website=Axios|access-date=8 February 2021}}</ref>
 
== معنای استیضاح ==