تفاوت میان نسخه‌های «ویژگی‌های فلزات، شبه‌فلزات و نافلزات»

ایجاد شده توسط ترجمهٔ صفحهٔ «Properties of metals, metalloids and nonmetals»
برچسب: متن دارای ویکی‌متن نامتناظر
(ایجاد شده توسط ترجمهٔ صفحهٔ «Properties of metals, metalloids and nonmetals»)
برچسب‌ها: ترجمهٔ محتوا حذف حجم زیادی از مطالب منبع‌دار ترجمه محتوا ۲
=== Details ===
 
[[رده:نافلزها]]
 
==Comparison of properties==
===Overview===
<!-- OVERVIEW TABLE -->
{{Metals-metalloids-nonmetals: compare, overview}}
{{nowrap|The characteristic}} properties of metals and nonmetals are quite distinct, as shown in the table below. Metalloids, straddling the [[dividing line between metals and nonmetals|metal-nonmetal border]], are mostly distinct from either, but in a few properties resemble one or the other, as shown in the shading of the metalloid column below and summarized in the small table at the top of this section.
 
Authors differ in where they divide metals from nonmetals and in whether they recognize an intermediate [[metalloid]] category. Some authors count metalloids as nonmetals with weakly nonmetallic properties.{{#tag:ref|For example:
*Brinkley<ref>[[#Brinkley1945|Brinkley 1945, p.&nbsp;378]]</ref> writes that boron has weakly nonmetallic properties.
*Glinka<ref>[[#Glinka1965|Glinka 1965, p.&nbsp;88]]</ref> describes silicon as a weak nonmetal.
*Eby et al.<ref>[[#Eby1943|Eby et al. 1943, p.&nbsp;404]]</ref> discuss the weak chemical behaviour of the elements close to the metal-nonmetal borderline.
*Booth and Bloom<ref>[[#Booth1972|Booth & Bloom 1972, p.&nbsp;426]]</ref> say "A period represents a stepwise change from elements strongly metallic to weakly metallic to weakly nonmetallic to strongly nonmetallic, and then, at the end, to an abrupt cessation of almost all chemical properties&nbsp;...".
*Cox<ref name=Cox /> notes "nonmetallic elements close to the metallic borderline ([[silicon|Si]], [[germanium|Ge]], [[arsenic|As]], [[antimony|Sb]], [[selenium|Se]], [[tellurium|Te]]) show less tendency to anionic behaviour and are sometimes called metalloids."|group=n}} Others count some of the metalloids as [[post-transition metal]]s.{{#tag:ref|See, for example, Huheey, Keiter & Keiter<ref>[[#HuheeyK|Huheey, Keiter & Keiter 1993, p.&nbsp;28]]</ref> who classify Ge and Sb as post-transition metals.|group=n}}
 
{{clear}}
 
===Details===
<!-- DETAIL TABLE (big) -->
{{Metals-metalloids-nonmetals: compare, details}}
 
==Anomalous properties==
{{Quote box
| quote = There were exceptions…in the periodic table, anomalies too—some of them profound. Why, for example, was manganese such a bad conductor of electricity, when the elements on either side of it were reasonably good conductors? Why was strong magnetism confined to the iron metals? And yet these exceptions, I was somehow convinced, reflected special additional mechanisms at work…
| salign=right| source = Oliver Sacks<br>[[#Sacks|''Uncle Tungsten'']] (2001, p. 204)
| bgcolor =
| quoted = 1
| width = 26em
| align = right
}}
Within each category, elements can be found with one or two properties very different from the expected norm, or that are otherwise notable.
 
===Metals===
 
<!-- {{Periodic table (micro)|title=|mark=Na,K,Rb,Cs,Ba,Pt,Au}} -->'''[[Sodium]]''', '''[[potassium]]''', '''[[rubidium]]''', '''[[caesium]]''', '''[[barium]]''', '''[[platinum]]''', '''[[gold]]'''
:*The common notions that "alkali metal ions (group 1A) always have a +1 charge"<ref>[[#Brownet|Brown et al. 2009, p. 137]]</ref> and that "transition elements do not form anions"<ref>[[#Brescia1975|Bresica et al. 1975, p. 137]]</ref> are [[textbook]] errors. The synthesis of a crystalline salt of the sodium anion Na<sup>−</sup> was reported in 1974. Since then further compounds ("[[alkalide]]s") containing anions of all other [[alkali metal]]s except [[lithium|Li]] and [[francium|Fr]], as well as that of [[barium|Ba]], have been prepared. In 1943, Sommer reported the preparation of the yellow transparent compound [[Caesium auride|CsAu]]. This was subsequently shown to consist of caesium cations (Cs<sup>+</sup>) and auride anions (Au<sup>−</sup>) although it was some years before this conclusion was accepted. Several other aurides (KAu, RbAu) have since been synthesized, as well as the red transparent compound Cs<sub>2</sub>Pt which was found to contain Cs<sup>+</sup> and Pt<sup>2−</sup> ions.<ref>[[#Jansen2005|Jansen 2005]]</ref>
 
<!-- {{Periodic table (micro)|title=|mark=Mn}} -->'''[[Manganese]]'''
:*Well-behaved metals have crystal structures featuring [[unit cell]]s with up to four atoms. Manganese has a complex crystal structure with a 58-atom unit cell, effectively four different atomic radii, and four different [[coordination number]]s (10, 11, 12 and 16). It has been described as resembling "a quaternary [[intermetallic compound]] with four Mn atom types bonding as if they were different elements."<ref name=R>[[#Russell2005|Russell & Lee 2005, p.&nbsp;246]]</ref> The half-filled ''3d'' shell of manganese appears to be the cause of the complexity. This confers a large [[magnetic moment]] on each atom. Below 727&nbsp;°C, a unit cell of 58 spatially diverse atoms represents the energetically lowest way of achieving a zero net magnetic moment.<ref>[[#Russell2005|Russell & Lee 2005, p.&nbsp;244–5]]</ref> The crystal structure of manganese makes it a hard and brittle metal, with low electrical and thermal conductivity. At higher temperatures "greater lattice vibrations nullify magnetic effects"<ref name=R/> and manganese adopts less complex structures.<ref>[[#Donohoe|Donohoe 1982, pp.&nbsp;191–196]]; [[#Russell2005|Russell & Lee 2005, pp.&nbsp;244–247]]</ref>
 
<!-- {{Periodic table (micro)|title=|mark=Fe,Co,Ni,Gd,Tb,Dy,Ho,Er,Tm}} -->'''[[Iron]]''', '''[[cobalt]]''', '''[[nickel]]''', '''[[gadolinium]]''', '''[[terbium]]''', '''[[dysprosium]]''', '''[[holmium]]''', '''[[erbium]]''', '''[[thulium]]'''
:*The only elements strongly attracted to magnets are iron, cobalt, and nickel at room temperature, gadolinium just below, and terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, and thulium at ultra cold temperatures (below −54&nbsp;°C, −185&nbsp;°C, −254&nbsp;°C, −254&nbsp;°C, and −241&nbsp;°C respectively).<ref>[[#Jackson2000|Jackson 2000]]</ref>
 
<!-- {{Periodic table (micro)|title=|mark=Ir}} -->'''[[Iridium]]'''
:*The only element encountered with an oxidation state of +9 is iridium, in the [IrO<sub>4</sub>]<sup>+</sup> cation. Other than this, the highest known oxidation state is +8, in [[ruthenium|Ru]], [[xenon|Xe]], [[osmium|Os]], [[iridium|Ir]], and [[hassium|Hs]].<ref>[[#Stoye|Stoye 2014]]</ref>
 
<!-- {{Periodic table (micro)|title=|mark=Au}} -->'''[[Gold]]'''
:*The [[malleable|malleability]] of gold is extraordinary: a fist sized lump can be hammered and separated into one million paper back sized sheets, each 10 [[nanometer|nm]] thick,{{citation needed|date=April 2015}} 1600 times thinner than regular kitchen aluminium foil (0.016 mm thick).{{citation needed|date=April 2015}} <!--Copied the info from [[aluminium foil]], but I couldn't find the reference-->
 
<!-- {{Periodic table (micro)|title=|mark=Hg}} -->'''[[Mercury (element)|Mercury]]
#Bricks and bowling balls will float on the surface of mercury thanks to it having a density 13.5 times that of water. Equally, a solid mercury bowling ball would weigh around 50 pounds and, if it could be kept cold enough, would float on the surface of liquid [[gold]].{{citation needed|date=April 2015}}
#The only metal having an ionisation energy higher than some nonmetals ([[sulfur]] and [[selenium]]) is mercury.{{citation needed|date=April 2015}}
#Mercury and its compounds have a reputation for toxicity but on a scale of 1 to 10, [[dimethylmercury]] ((CH<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub>Hg) (abbr. DMM), a volatile colourless liquid, has been described as a 15. It is so dangerous that scientists have been encouraged to use less toxic mercury compounds wherever possible. In 1997, [[Karen Wetterhahn]], a professor of chemistry specialising in toxic metal exposure, died of mercury poisoning ten months after a few drops of DMM landed on her "protective" latex gloves. Although Wetterhahn had been following the then published procedures for handling this compound, it passed through her gloves and skin within seconds. It is now known that DMM is exceptionally permeable to (ordinary) gloves, skin and tissues. And its toxicity is such that less than one-tenth of a ml applied to the skin will be seriously toxic.<ref>[[#Witt|Witt 1991]]; [[#Endicott|Endicott 1998]]</ref>
 
<!-- {{Periodic table (micro)|title=|mark=Pb}} -->'''[[Lead]]'''
:*The expression, to "[[:wikt:go down like a lead balloon|go down like a lead balloon]]" is anchored in the common view of lead as a dense, heavy metal—being nearly as dense as mercury. However, it is possible to construct a balloon made of lead foil, filled with a [[helium]] and air mixture, which will float and be buoyant enough to carry a small load.{{citation needed|date=April 2015}}
 
<!-- {{Periodic table (micro)|title=|mark=Bi}} -->'''[[Bismuth]]'''
:*Bismuth has the longest [[half-life]] of any naturally occurring element; its only [[primordial isotope]], [[bismuth-209]], was found in 2003 to be slightly [[radioactive]], decaying via [[alpha decay]] with a half-life more than a billion times the estimated [[age of the universe]]. Prior to this discovery, bismuth-209 was thought to be the heaviest naturally occurring stable isotope;<ref>[[#Dumé2003|Dumé 2003]]</ref> this distinction now belongs to lead-208.
 
<!-- {{Periodic table (micro)|title=|mark=U}} -->'''[[Uranium]]'''
:*The only element with a naturally occurring isotope capable of undergoing nuclear fission is uranium.<ref>[[#Alvarez|Benedict et al. 1946, p.&nbsp;19]]</ref> The capacity of [[uranium-235]] to undergo fission was first suggested (and ignored) in 1934, and subsequently discovered in 1938.{{#tag:ref| In 1934, a team led by [[Enrico Fermi]] postulated that [[transuranium elements|transuranic elements]] may have been produced as a result of bombarding uranium with neutrons, a finding which was widely accepted for a few years. In the same year [[Ida Noddack]], a German scientist and subsequently a three-time [[Nobel prize]] nominee, criticised this assumption, writing "It is conceivable that the nucleus ''breaks up into several large fragments'', which would of course be isotopes of known elements but would not be neighbors of the irradiated element."<ref>[[#Ida|Noddack 1934, p.&nbsp;653]]</ref>[emphasis added] In this, Noddak defied the understanding of the time without offering experimental proof or theoretical basis, but nevertheless presaged what would be known a few years later as nuclear fission. Her paper was generally ignored as, in 1925, she and two colleagues claimed to have discovered element 43, then proposed to be called masurium (later discovered in 1936 by Perrier and Segrè, and named [[technetium]]). Had Ida Noddack's paper been accepted it is likely that Germany would have had an [[atomic bomb]] and, 'the history of the world would have been [very] different.'<ref>[[#Sacks|Sacks 2001, p.&nbsp;205]]: 'This story was told by Glenn Seaborg when he was presenting his recollections at a conference in November 1997.'</ref>|group=n}}
 
<!-- {{Periodic table (micro)|title=|mark=Pu}} -->'''[[Plutonium]]'''
:*It is a commonly held belief that metals reduce their electrical conductivity when heated. Plutonium increases its electrical conductivity when heated in the temperature range of around –175 to +125&nbsp;°C.{{citation needed|date=April 2015}}
 
===Metalloids===
 
<!-- {{Periodic table (micro)|title=|mark=B}} -->'''[[Boron]]'''
:*Boron is the only element with a partially disordered structure in its most thermodynamically stable crystalline form.<ref>[[#Dalhouse|Dalhouse University 2015]]; [[#White|White et al. 2015]]</ref>
{{clear}}
 
<!-- {{Periodic table (micro)|title=|mark=B,Sb}}-->'''[[Boron]]''', '''[[antimony]]'''
:*These elements are record holders within the field of [[superacid]] chemistry. For seven decades, [[fluorosulfonic acid]] HSO<sub>3</sub>F and [[trifluoromethanesulfonic acid]] CF<sub>3</sub>SO<sub>3</sub>H were the strongest known acids that could be isolated as single compounds. Both are about a thousand times more acidic than pure [[sulfuric acid]]. In 2004, a boron compound broke this record by a thousand fold with the synthesis of [[carborane acid]] H(CHB<sub>11</sub>Cl<sub>11</sub>). Another metalloid, antimony, features in the strongest known acid, a mixture 10 billion times stronger than carborane acid. This is [[fluoroantimonic acid]] H<sub>2</sub>F[SbF<sub>6</sub>], a mixture of [[antimony pentafluoride]] SbF<sub>5</sub> and [[hydrofluoric acid]] HF.{{citation needed|date=April 2015}}
 
<!-- {{Periodic table (micro)|title=|mark=Si}} -->'''[[Silicon]]'''
#The thermal conductivity of silicon is better than that of most metals.{{citation needed|date=April 2015}}
#A sponge-like [[Porous silicon|porous]] form of silicon (p-Si) is typically prepared by the electrochemical etching of silicon wafers in a [[hydrofluoric acid]] solution.<ref name="DuPlessis">[[#DuPlessis|DuPlessis 2007, p.&nbsp;133]]</ref> Flakes of p-Si sometimes appear red;<ref>[[#Gösele|Gösele & Lehmann 1994, p.&nbsp;19]]</ref> it has a band gap of 1.97–2.1 eV.<ref>[[#Chen|Chen, Lee & Bosman 1994]]</ref> The many tiny pores in porous silicon give it an enormous internal surface area, up to 1,000 m<sup>2</sup>/cm<sup>3</sup>.<ref name="Kovalev">[[#Kovalev|Kovalev et al. 2001, p.&nbsp;068301-1]]</ref> When exposed to an [[oxidant]],<ref>[[#Mikulec|Mikulec, Kirtland & Sailor 2002]]</ref> especially a liquid oxidant,<ref name="Kovalev"/> the high surface-area to volume ratio of p-Si creates a very efficient burn, accompanied by nano-explosions,<ref name=DuPlessis/> and sometimes by [[ball lightning|ball-lightning]]-like plasmoids with, for example, a diameter of 0.1–0.8 m, a velocity of up to 0.5&nbsp;m/s and a lifetime of up to 1s.<ref>[[#Bychkov|Bychkov 2012, pp.&nbsp;20–21]]; see also [[#Lazaruk|Lazaruk et al. 2007]]</ref> The first ever spectrographic analysis of a ball lightning event (in 2012) revealed the presence of silicon, iron and calcium, these elements also being present in the soil.<ref>[[#Slezak|Slezak 2014]]</ref>
 
<!-- {{Periodic table (micro)|title=|mark=As}} -->'''[[Arsenic]]'''
:*Metals are said to be [[melting|fusible]], resulting in some confusion in old chemistry as to whether arsenic was a true metal, or a nonmetal, or something in between. It [[sublimation (phase transition)|sublimes]] rather than melts at standard [[atmospheric pressure]], like the nonmetals [[carbon]] and [[red phosphorus]].{{citation needed|date=April 2015}}
 
<!-- {{Periodic table (micro)|title=|mark=Sb}} -->'''[[Antimony]]'''
:*A high-energy explosive form of antimony was first obtained in 1858. It is prepared by the electrolysis of any of the heavier antimony trihalides (SbCl<sub>3</sub>, SbBr<sub>3</sub>, SbI<sub>3</sub>) in a hydrochloric acid solution at low temperature. It comprises amorphous antimony with some occluded antimony trihalide (7–20% in the case of the [[antimony trichloride|trichloride]]). When scratched, struck, powdered or heated quickly to 200&nbsp;°C, it "flares up, emits sparks and is converted explosively into the lower-energy, crystalline grey antimony."<ref>[[#Wiberg2001|Wiberg 2001, p.&nbsp;758]]; see also [[#Fraden|Fraden 1951]]</ref>
 
===Nonmetals===
 
<!-- {{Periodic table (micro)|title=|mark=H}} -->'''[[Hydrogen]]'''
#[[Water]] (H<sub>2</sub>O), a well known [[oxide]] of hydrogen, is a spectacular anomaly.<ref>[[#Sacks|Sacks 2001, p.&nbsp;204]]</ref> Extrapolating from the heavier [[hydrogen chalcogenide]]s, namely [[hydrogen sulfide]] H<sub>2</sub>S, [[hydrogen selenide]] H<sub>2</sub>Se, and [[hydrogen telluride]] H<sub>2</sub>Te, water should be "a foul-smelling, poisonous, inflammable gas…condensing to a nasty liquid [at] around –100° C". Instead, due to [[hydrogen bonding]], water is "stable, potable, odorless, benign, and…indispensable to life".<ref>[[#Sacks|Sacks 2001, pp.&nbsp;204–205]]</ref>
#Less well known of the oxides of hydrogen is the [[hydrogen trioxide|trioxide]], H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>. [[Marcellin Berthelot|Berthelot]] proposed the existence of this oxide in 1880 but his suggestion was soon forgotten as there was no way of testing it using the technology of the time.<ref name=Cerkovnik>[[#Cerkovnik|Cerkovnik & Plesničar 2013, p.&nbsp;7930]]</ref> Hydrogen trioxide was prepared in 1994 by replacing the oxygen used in the industrial process for making hydrogen peroxide, with [[ozone]]. The yield is about 40 per cent, at –78&nbsp;°C; above around –40&nbsp;°C it decomposes into water and oxygen.<ref>[[#Emsley1994|Emsley 1994, p.&nbsp;1910]]</ref> Derivatives of hydrogen trioxide, such as {{nowrap|F<sub>3</sub>C–O–O–O–CF<sub>3</sub>}} ("bis(trifluoromethyl) trioxide") are known; these are [[metastable]] at room temperature.<ref name=WibergD/> [[Mendeleev]] went a step further, in 1895, and proposed the existence of [[hydrogen tetroxide]] {{nowrap|HO–O–O–OH}} as a transient intermediate in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide;<ref name=Cerkovnik/> this was prepared and characterised in 1974, using a matrix isolation technique.{{citation needed|date=January 2015}} [[Alkali metal]] [[ozonide]] salts of the unknown [[hydrogen ozonide]] (HO<sub>3</sub>) are also known; these have the formula MO<sub>3</sub>.<ref name=WibergD>[[#Wiberg2001|Wiberg 2001, p.&nbsp;497]]</ref>
 
<!-- {{Periodic table (micro)|title=|mark=He}} -->'''[[Helium]]'''
#At temperatures below 0.3 and 0.8 K respectively, [[helium-3]] and [[helium-4]] each have a negative [[enthalpy of fusion]]. This means that, at the appropriate constant pressures, these substances freeze with the ''addition'' of heat.{{citation needed|date=April 2015}}
#Until 1999 helium was thought to be too small to form a cage [[clathrate]]—a compound in which a guest atom or molecule is encapsulated in a cage formed by a host molecule—at atmospheric pressure. In that year the synthesis of microgram quantities of [[Dodecahedrane#Encapsulating atoms in dodecahedrane|He@C<sub>20</sub>H<sub>20</sub>]] represented the first such helium clathrate and (what was described as) the world's smallest helium balloon.<ref>[[#Cross|Cross, Saunders & Prinzbach]]; [[#Horst|Chemistry Views 2015]]</ref>
 
<!-- {{Periodic table (micro)|title=|mark=C}} -->'''[[Carbon]]'''
#Graphite is the most electrically conductive nonmetal, better than some metals.{{citation needed|date=April 2015}}
#[[Diamond]] is the best natural conductor of heat; it even feels cold to the touch. Its thermal conductivity (2,200&nbsp;W/m•K) is five times greater than the most conductive metal ([[silver|Ag]] at 429); 300 times higher than the least conductive metal ([[plutonium|Pu]] at 6.74); and nearly 4,000 times that of water (0.58) and 100,000 times that of air (0.0224). This high thermal conductivity is used by jewelers and gemologists to separate diamonds from imitations.{{citation needed|date=April 2015}}
#Graphene [[aerogel]], produced in 2012 by freeze-drying a solution of [[carbon nanotube]]s and [[graphite oxide]] sheets and chemically removing oxygen, is seven times lighter than air, and ten per cent lighter than helium. It is the lightest solid known (0.16&nbsp;mg/cm<sup>3</sup>), conductive and elastic.<ref>[[#Sun|Sun, Xu & Gao 2013]]; [[#Anthony|Anthony 2013]]</ref>
 
<!-- {{Periodic table (micro)|title=|mark=P}} -->'''[[Phosphorus]]'''
:*The least stable and most reactive form of phosphorus is the [[Allotropes of phosphorus#White phosphorus|white]] [[allotrope]]. It is a hazardous, highly flammable and toxic substance, spontaneously igniting in air and producing [[phosphoric acid]] residue. It is therefore normally stored under water. White phosphorus is also the most common, industrially important, and easily reproducible allotrope, and for these reasons is regarded as the [[standard state]] of phosphorus. The most stable form is the [[Allotropes of phosphorus#Black phosphorus|black allotrope]], which is a metallic looking, brittle and relatively non-reactive semiconductor (unlike the white allotrope, which has a white or yellowish appearance, is pliable, highly reactive and a semiconductor). When assessing periodicity in the physical properties of the elements it needs to be borne in mind that the quoted properties of phosphorus tend to be those of its least stable form rather than, as is the case with all other elements, the most stable form.{{citation needed|date=April 2015}}
 
<!-- {{Periodic table (micro)|title=|mark=I}} -->'''[[Iodine]]'''
:*The mildest of the [[halogen]]s, iodine is the active ingredient in [[tincture of iodine]], a disinfectant. This can be found in household medicine cabinets or emergency survival kits. Tincture of iodine will rapidly dissolve gold,<ref>[[#Nakao|Nakao 1992]]</ref> a task ordinarily requiring the use of [[aqua regia]] (a highly corrosive mixture of [[nitric acid|nitric]] and [[hydrochloric acid]]s).{{citation needed|date=April 2015}}
 
==Notes==
{{Reflist|group=n|colwidth=45em}}
 
==Citations==
{{Reflist|20em}}
 
==References==
{{refbegin|30em}}
*<span id="Addison"></span>Addison WE 1964, ''The allotropy of the elements,'' Oldbourne Press, London
*<span id="Adler1969"></span>Adler D 1969, 'Half-way elements: The technology of metalloids', book review, ''Technology Review,'' vol. 72, no. 1, Oct/Nov, pp.&nbsp;18–19
*<span id="Anita1998></span>Anita M 1998, '[http://physics.aps.org/story/v2/st4 Focus: Levitating Liquid Boron]', ''American Physical Society'', viewed 14 December 2014
*<span id="Anthony"></span>Anthony S 2013, '[http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/153063-graphene-aerogel-is-seven-times-lighter-than-air-can-balance-on-a-blade-of-grass Graphene aerogel is seven times lighter than air, can balance on a blade of grass]', ''ExtremeTech'', April 10, accessed 8 February 2015
*<span id="Appalakondaiah"></span>Appalakondaiah S, Vaitheeswaran G, Lebègue S, Christensen NE & Svane A 2012, 'Effect of van der Waals interactions on the structural and elastic properties of black phosphorus,' ''Physical Review B, ''vol. 86, pp.&nbsp;035105‒1 to 9, {{DOI|10.1103/PhysRevB.86.035105}}
*<span id="Askeland"></span>Askeland DR, Fulay PP & Wright JW 2011, ''The science and engineering of materials,'' 6th ed., Cengage Learning, Stamford, CT, {{ISBN|0-495-66802-8}}
*<span id="Atkins2006"></span>Atkins P, Overton T, Rourke J, Weller M & Armstrong F 2006, ''Shriver & Atkins' inorganic chemistry,'' 4th ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford, {{ISBN|0-7167-4878-9}}
*<span id="Austen2012"></span>Austen K 2012, 'A factory for elements that barely exist', ''NewScientist,'' 21 Apr, p.&nbsp;12, ISSN 1032-1233
*<span id="Bagnall1966"></span>Bagnall KW 1966, ''The chemistry of selenium, tellurium and polonium,'' Elsevier, Amsterdam
*<span id="Bailar1989"></span>Bailar JC, Moeller T, Kleinberg J, Guss CO, Castellion ME & Metz C 1989, ''Chemistry,'' 3rd ed., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, San Diego, {{ISBN|0-15-506456-8}}
*<span id="Bassett1966"></span>Bassett LG, Bunce SC, Carter AE, Clark HM & Hollinger HB 1966, ''Principles of chemistry,'' Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ
*<span id="Bbatsanov"></span>Batsanov SS & Batsanov AS 2012, ''Introduction to structural chemistry,'' Springer Science+Business Media, Dordrecht, {{ISBN|978-94-007-4770-8}}
*<span id="Alvarez"></span>Benedict M, Alvarez LW, Bliss LA, English SG, Kinzell AB, Morrison P, English FH, Starr C & Williams WJ 1946, 'Technological control of atomic energy activities', "Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists," vol. 2, no. 11, pp.&nbsp;18–29
*<span id="Dumé2003"></span>{{cite news| url=http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2003/apr/23/bismuth-breaks-half-life-record-for-alpha-decay| title=Bismuth breaks half-life record for alpha decay| date=23 April 2003| publisher=Physicsworld| first=Belle| last= Dumé}}
*<span id="Berei1985"></span>Berei K & Vasáros L 1985, 'Astatine compounds', in [[#Kugler1985|Kugler & Keller]]
*<span id="Betke2011"></span>Betke U & Wickleder MS 2011, 'Sulfates of the refractory metals: Crystal structure and thermal behavior of Nb<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>(SO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>3</sub>, MoO<sub>2</sub>(SO<sub>4</sub>), WO(SO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub>, and two modifications of Re<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>(SO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub>', ''Inorganic chemistry,'' vol. 50, no. 3, pp 858–872, {{DOI|10.1021/ic101455z}}
*<span id="Beveridge1997"></span>Beveridge TJ, Hughes MN, Lee H, Leung KT, Poole RK, Savvaidis I, Silver S & Trevors JT 1997, 'Metal–microbe interactions: Contemporary approaches', in RK Poole (ed.), ''Advances in microbial physiology,'' vol. 38, Academic Press, San Diego, pp.&nbsp;177–243, {{ISBN|0-12-027738-7}}
*<span id="Bogoroditskii1967"></span>Bogoroditskii NP & Pasynkov VV 1967, ''Radio and electronic materials,'' Iliffe Books, London
*<span id="Booth1972"></span>Booth VH & Bloom ML 1972, ''Physical science: a study of matter and energy,'' Macmillan, New York
*<span id="Born"></span>Born M & Wolf E 1999, ''Principles of optics: Electromagnetic theory of propagation, interference and diffraction of light,'' 7th ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, {{ISBN|0-521-64222-1}}
*<span id="Brassington1980"></span>Brassington MP, Lambson WA, Miller AJ, Saunders GA & Yogurtçu YK 1980, 'The second- and third-order elastic constants of amorphous arsenic', ''Philosophical Magazine Part B,'' vol. 42, no. 1., pp.&nbsp;127–148, {{DOI|10.1080/01418638008225644}}
*<span id="Brasted1974"></span>Brasted RC 1974, 'Oxygen group elements and their compounds', in ''The new Encyclopædia Britannica'', vol. 13, Encyclopædia Britannica, Chicago, pp.&nbsp;809–824
*<span id="Brescia1975"></span>Brescia F, Arents J, Meislich H & Turk A 1975, ''Fundamentals of chemistry'', 3rd ed., Academic Press, New York, p.&nbsp;453, {{ISBN|978-0-12-132372-1}}
*<span id="Brinkley1945"></span>Brinkley SR 1945, ''Introductory general chemistry,'' 3rd ed., Macmillan, New York
*<span id="Brownet">Brown TL, LeMay HE, Bursten BE, Murphy CJ & Woodward P 2009, ''Chemistry: The Central Science,'' 11th ed., Pearson Education, New Jersey, {{ISBN|978-0-13-235-848-4}}
*<span id="Burakowski"></span>Burakowski T & Wierzchoń T 1999, ''Surface engineering of metals: Principles, equipment, technologies,'' CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, {{ISBN|0-8493-8225-4}}
*<span id="Bychkov"></span>Bychkov VL 2012, 'Unsolved Mystery of Ball Lightning', in ''Atomic Processes in Basic and Applied Physics,'' V Shevelko & H Tawara (eds), Springer Science & Business Media, Heidelberg, pp.&nbsp;3–24, {{ISBN|978-3-642-25568-7}}
*<span id="Carapella1968"></span>Carapella SC 1968a, 'Arsenic' in CA Hampel (ed.), ''The encyclopedia of the chemical elements,'' Reinhold, New York, pp.&nbsp;29–32
*<span id="Cerkovnik"></span>Cerkovnik J & Plesničar B 2013, 'Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Hydrogen Trioxide (HOOOH), ''Chemical Reviews,'' vol. 113, no. 10), pp.&nbsp;7930–7951, {{doi|10.1021/cr300512s}}
*<span id="Chang1994"></span>Chang R 1994, ''Chemistry,'' 5th (international) ed., McGraw-Hill, New York
*<span id="Chang2002"></span>Chang R 2002, ''Chemistry,'' 7th ed., McGraw Hill, Boston
*<span id="Chedd1969"></span>Chedd G 1969, ''Half-way elements: The technology of metalloids,'' Doubleday, New York
*<span id="Chen"></span>Chen Z, Lee T-Y & Bosman G 1994, 'Electrical Band Gap of Porous Silicon', ''Applied Physics Letters,'' vol. 64, p.&nbsp;3446, {{doi|10.1063/1.111237}}
*<span id="Chizhikov1968"></span>Chizhikov DM & Shchastlivyi VP 1968, ''Selenium and selenides,'' translated from the Russian by EM Elkin, Collet's, London
*<span id="Choppin1972"></span>Choppin GR & Johnsen RH 1972, ''Introductory chemistry,'' Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts
*<span id="Christensen2012"></span>Christensen RM 2012, 'Are the elements ductile or brittle: A nanoscale evaluation,' in ''[http://www.failurecriteria.com/index.html Failure theory for materials science and engineering],'' chapter 12, p.&nbsp;14
*<span id=Clementi></span>Clementi E & Raimondi DL 1963, Atomic Screening Constants from SCF Functions, ''Journal of Chemical Physics,'' vol. 38, pp.&nbsp;2868–2689, {{doi|10.1063/1.1733573}}
*<span id="Clementi1967"></span>Clementi E, Raimondi DL & Reinhardt WP 1967, 'Atomic Screening Constants from SCF Functions. II. Atoms with 37 to 86 Electrons', ''Journal of Chemical Physics,'' vol. 47, pp.&nbsp;1300–1306, {{doi|10.1063/1.1712084}}
*<span id="Cordes1973"></span>Cordes EH & Scaheffer R 1973, ''Chemistry,'' Harper & Row, New York
*<span id="Cotton1994"></span>Cotton SA 1994, 'Scandium, yttrium & the lanthanides: Inorganic & coordination chemistry', in RB King (ed.), ''Encyclopedia of inorganic chemistry,'' 2nd ed., vol. 7, John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp.&nbsp;3595–3616, {{ISBN|978-0-470-86078-6}}
*<span id="Cox2004"></span>Cox PA 2004, ''Inorganic chemistry,'' 2nd ed., Instant notes series, Bios Scientific, London, {{ISBN|1-85996-289-0}}
*<span id="Cross"></span>Cross RJ, Saunders M & Prinzbach H 1999, 'Putting Helium Inside Dodecahedrane', ''Organic Letters,'' vol. 1, no. 9, pp.&nbsp;1479–1481, {{doi|10.1021/ol991037v}}
*<span id="Cverna2002"></span>Cverna F 2002, ''ASM ready reference: Thermal properties of metals,'' ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, {{ISBN|0-87170-768-3}}
*<span id="Dalhouse"></span>Dalhouse University 2015, '[https://www.dal.ca/news/media/media-releases/2015/01/28/dal_chemist_discovers_new_information_about_elemental_boron.html Dal chemist discovers new information about elemental boron]', media release, 28 January, accessed 9 May 2015
*<span id="Deming1952"></span>Deming HG 1952, ''General chemistry: An elementary survey,'' 6th ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York
*<span id="Desai1984"></span>Desai PD, James HM & Ho CY 1984, [https://www.nist.gov/data/PDFfiles/jpcrd260.pdf Electrical resistivity of aluminum and manganese], ''Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data,'' vol. 13, no. 4, pp.&nbsp;1131–1172, {{DOI|10.1063/1.555725}}
*<span id="Donohoe"></span>Donohoe J 1982, ''The Structures of the Elements,'' Robert E. Krieger, Malabar, Florida, {{ISBN|0-89874-230-7}}
*<span id="Douglade1982"></span>Douglade J & Mercier R 1982, 'Structure cristalline et covalence des liaisons dans le sulfate d'arsenic(III), As<sub>2</sub>(SO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>3</sub>', ''Acta Crystallographica Section B,'' vol. 38, no. 3, pp.&nbsp;720–723, {{DOI|10.1107/S056774088200394X}}
*<span id="Dunstan1968"></span>Dunstan S 1968, ''Principles of chemistry,'' D. Van Nostrand Company, London
*<span id="DuPlessis"></span>Du Plessis M 2007, 'A Gravimetric Technique to Determine the Crystallite Size Distribution in High Porosity Nanoporous Silicon, in JA Martino, MA Pavanello & C Claeys (eds), ''Microelectronics Technology and Devices–SBMICRO 2007'', vol. 9, no. 1, The Electrochemical Society, New Jersey, pp.&nbsp;133–142, {{ISBN|978-1-56677-565-6}}
*<span id="Eby1943"></span>Eby GS, Waugh CL, Welch HE & Buckingham BH 1943, ''The physical sciences,'' Ginn and Company, Boston
*<span id="Edwards1983"></span>Edwards PP & Sienko MJ 1983, 'On the occurrence of metallic character in the periodic table of the elements', ''Journal of Chemical Education,'' vol. 60, no. 9, pp.&nbsp;691–696, {{doi|10.1021/ed060p691}}
*<span id="Edwards1999"></span>Edwards PP 1999, 'Chemically engineering the metallic, insulating and superconducting state of matter' in KR Seddon & M Zaworotko (eds), ''Crystal engineering: The design and application of functional solids,'' Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp.&nbsp;409–431
*<span id="Edwards2000"></span>Edwards PP 2000, 'What, why and when is a metal?', in N Hall (ed.), ''The new chemistry,'' Cambridge University, Cambridge, pp.&nbsp;85–114
*<span id="Edwards2010"></span>Edwards PP, Lodge MTJ, Hensel F & Redmer R 2010, '<span style="white-space: nowrap">...</span>a metal conducts and a non-metal doesn't', ''Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences,'' vol. 368, pp.&nbsp;941–965, {{DOI|10.1098rsta.2009.0282}}
*<span id="Eichler2007"></span>Eichler R, Aksenov NV, Belozerov AV, Bozhikov GA, Chepigin VI, Dmitriev SN, Dressler R, Gäggeler HW, Gorshkov VA, Haenssler F, Itkis MG, Laube A, Lebedev VY, Malyshev ON, Oganessian YT, Petrushkin OV, Piguet D, Rasmussen P, Shishkin SV, Shutov, AV, Svirikhin AI, Tereshatov EE, Vostokin GK, Wegrzecki M & Yeremin AV 2007, 'Chemical characterization of element 112,' ''Nature,'' vol. 447, pp.&nbsp;72–75, {{doi|10.1038/nature05761}}
*<span id="Endicott"></span>Endicott K 1998, [https://web.archive.org/web/20140715003519/http://stemed.unm.edu/PDFs/cd/CLASSROOM_LAB_SAFETY/Trembling_Edge_Science.pdf 'The Trembling Edge of Science'], ''Dartmouth Alumini Magazine'', April, accessed 8 May 2015
*<span id="Emsley1994"></span>Emsley 1994, 'Science: Surprise legacy of Germany's Flying Bombs', ''New Scientist,'' no. 1910, January 29
*<span id="Emsley2001"></span>Emsley J 2001, [https://books.google.com/books?id=Yhi5X7OwuGkC&source=gbs_book_other_versions ''Nature's building blocks: An A–Z guide to the elements],'' {{ISBN|0-19-850341-5}}
*<span id="Fraden"></span>Fraden JH 1951, 'Amorphous antimony. A lecture demonstration in allotropy', ''Journal of Chemical Education,'' vol. 28, no. 1, pp.&nbsp;34–35, {{doi| 10.1021/ed028p34}}
*<span id="Furuseth1974"></span>Furuseth S, Selte K, Hope H, Kjekshus A & Klewe B 1974, 'Iodine oxides. Part V. The crystal structure of (IO)<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>', ''Acta Chemica Scandinavica A,'' vol. 28, pp.&nbsp;71–76, {{DOI|10.3891/acta.chem.scand.28a-0071}}
*<span id="Georgievskii"></span>Georgievskii VI 1982, 'Biochemical regions. Mineral composition of feeds', in VI Georgievskii, BN Annenkov & VT Samokhin (eds), ''Mineral nutrition of animals: Studies in the agricultural and food sciences,'' Butterworths, London, pp.&nbsp;57–68, {{ISBN|0-408-10770-7}}
*<span id="Gillespie1959"></span>Gillespie RJ & Robinson EA 1959, 'The sulphuric acid solvent system', in HJ Emeléus & AG Sharpe (eds), ''Advances in inorganic chemistry and radiochemistry,'' vol. 1, Academic Press, New York, pp.&nbsp;386–424
*<span id="Glazov1969"></span>Glazov VM, Chizhevskaya SN & Glagoleva NN 1969, ''Liquid semiconductors,'' Plenum, New York
*<span id="Glinka1965"></span>Glinka N 1965, ''General chemistry,'' trans. D Sobolev, Gordon & Breach, New York
*<span id="Gösele"></span>Gösele U & Lehmann V 1994, 'Porous Silicon Quantum Sponge Structures: Formation Mechanism, Preparation Methods and Some Properties', in Feng ZC & Tsu R (eds), ''Porous Silicon'', World Scientific, Singapore, pp.&nbsp;17–40, {{ISBN|981-02-1634-3}}
*<span id="Greaves2011"></span>Greaves GN, Greer AL, Lakes RS & Rouxel T 2011, 'Poisson's ratio and modern materials', ''Nature Materials,'' vol. 10, pp.&nbsp;823‒837, {{DOI|10.1038/NMAT3134}}
*<span id="Greenwood2002"></span>Greenwood NN & Earnshaw A 2002, ''Chemistry of the elements,'' 2nd ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, {{ISBN|0-7506-3365-4}}
*<span id="Gschneidner1964"></span>Gschneidner KA 1964, 'Physical properties and interrelationships of metallic and semimetallic elements,' ''Solid State Physics,'' vol. 16, pp.&nbsp;275‒426, {{DOI|10.1016/S0081-1947(08)60518-4}}
*<span id="Gupta2005"></span>Gupta A, Awana VPS, Samanta SB, Kishan H & Narlikar AV 2005, 'Disordered superconductors' in AV Narlikar (ed.), [https://books.google.com/books?id=F_-CN0tVqjAC&pg=PA502 ''Frontiers in superconducting materials''], Springer-Verlag, Berlin, p.&nbsp;502, {{ISBN|3-540-24513-8}}
*<span id="Habashi2003"></span>Habashi F 2003, ''Metals from ores: an introduction to extractive metallurgy'', Métallurgie Extractive Québec, Sainte Foy, Québec, {{ISBN|2-922686-04-3}}
*<span id="Halford"></span>Manson SS & Halford GR 2006, ''Fatigue and Durability of Structural Materials,'' ASM International, Materials Park, OH, {{ISBN|0-87170-825-6}}
*<span id="Hem"></span>Hem JD 1985, ''Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water,'' paper 2254, 3rd ed., US Geological Society, Alexandria, Virginia
*<span id="Hampel1976"></span>Hampel CA & Hawley GG 1976, ''Glossary of chemical terms,'' Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York
*<span id="Hérold2006"></span>Hérold A 2006, [https://web.archive.org/web/20120215003543/http://depa.pquim.unam.mx/amyd/archivero/An_arrangement_of_the_chemical_elements_5006.pdf 'An arrangement of the chemical elements in several classes inside the periodic table according to their common properties'], ''Comptes Rendus Chimie,'' vol. 9, pp.&nbsp;148–153, {{DOI|10.1016/j.crci.2005.10.002}}
*<span id="Herzfeld1927"></span>Herzfeld K 1927, 'On atomic properties which make an element a metal', ''Phys. Rev.,'' vol. 29, no. 5, pp.&nbsp;701–705, {{DOI|10.1103PhysRev.29.701}}
*<span id="Heslop1963"></span>Heslop RB & Robinson PL 1963, ''Inorganic chemistry: A guide to advanced study,'' Elsevier, Amsterdam
*<span id="Hill2000"></span>Hill G & Holman J 2000, [https://books.google.com/books?id=90IqK540a9AC&printsec=frontcover ''Chemistry in context,''] 5th ed., Nelson Thornes, Cheltenham, {{ISBN|0-17-448307-4}}
*<span id="Hiller1960"></span>Hiller LA & Herber RH 1960, ''Principles of chemistry,'' McGraw-Hill, New York
*<span id="Holtzclaw1991"></span>Holtzclaw HF, Robinson WR & Odom JD 1991, ''General chemistry,'' 9th ed., DC Heath, Lexington, {{ISBN|0-669-24429-5}}
*<span id="Hopcroft2010"></span>Hopcroft MA, Nix WD & Kenny TW 2010, 'What is the Young's modulus of silicon?', ''Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems,'' vol. 19, no. 2, pp.&nbsp;229‒238, {{DOI|10.1109/JMEMS.2009.2039697}}
*<span id="Horst"></span>''Chemistry Views'' 2012, 'Horst Prinzbach (1931 – 2012)', Wiley-VCH, accessed 28 February 2015
* <span id="HuheeyK"></span>Huheey JE, Keiter EA & Keiter RL 1993, ''Principles of Structure & Reactivity,'' 4th ed., HarperCollins College Publishers, {{ISBN|0-06-042995-X}}
*<span id="Hultgren1966"></span>Hultgren HH 1966, 'Metalloids', in GL Clark & GG Hawley (eds), ''The encyclopedia of inorganic chemistry,'' 2nd ed., Reinhold Publishing, New York
*<span id="Hunt2000"></span>Hunt A 2000, ''The complete A-Z chemistry handbook,'' 2nd ed., Hodder & Stoughton, London
*<span id="Iler1979"></span>Iler RK 1979, ''The chemistry of silica: solubility, polymerization, colloid and surface properties, and biochemistry,'' John Wiley, New York, {{ISBN|978-0-471-02404-0}}
*<span id="Jackson2000"></span>{{cite journal|journal = IRM Quarterly|year = 2000|volume = 10|issue = 3|page = 6|author = Jackson, Mike|publisher = Institute for Rock Magnetism|url =http://www.irm.umn.edu/quarterly/irmq10-3.pdf|title=Wherefore Gadolinium? Magnetism of the Rare Earths|format = PDF}}
*<span id="Jansen2005"></span>{{cite journal|title=Effects of relativistic motion of electrons on the chemistry of gold and platinum|journal=Solid State Sciences|date=2005-11-30|volume=7|issue=12|pages=1464–1474|doi=10.1016/j.solidstatesciences.2005.06.015|last=Jansen|first=Martin|bibcode=2005SSSci...7.1464J}}
*<span id="Jauncey1948"></span>Jauncey GEM 1948, ''Modern physics: A second course in college physics,'' D. Von Nostrand, New York
*<span id="Jenkins1976"></span>Jenkins GM & Kawamura K 1976, ''Polymeric carbons—carbon fibre, glass and char,'' Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
*<span id="Keenan1980"></span>Keenan CW, Kleinfelter DC & Wood JH 1980, ''General college chemistry,'' 6th ed., Harper & Row, San Francisco, {{ISBN|0-06-043615-8}}
*<span id="Keogh2005"></span>Keogh DW 2005, 'Actinides: Inorganic & coordination chemistry', in RB King (ed.), ''Encyclopedia of inorganic chemistry'', 2nd ed., vol. 1, John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp.&nbsp;2–32, {{ISBN|978-0-470-86078-6}}
*<span id="Klein1992"></span>Klein CA & Cardinale GF 1992, 'Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of CVD diamond', in A Feldman & S Holly, ''SPIE Proceedings,'' vol. 1759, Diamond Optics V, pp.&nbsp;178‒192, {{DOI|10.1117/12.130771}}
*<span id="Kneen1972"></span>Kneen WR, Rogers MJW & Simpson P 1972, ''Chemistry: Facts, patterns, and principles,'' Addison-Wesley, London
*<span id="Kovalev"></span>Kovalev D, Timoshenko VY, Künzner N, Gross E & Koch F 2001, 'Strong Explosive Interaction of Hydrogenated Porous Silicon with Oxygen at Cryogenic Temperatures', ''Physical Review Letters,'' vol. 87, pp.&nbsp;068301–1–06831-4, {{doi|10.1103/PhysRevLett.87.068301}}
*<span id="Kozyrev1959"></span>Kozyrev PT 1959, 'Deoxidized selenium and the dependence of its electrical conductivity on pressure. II', ''Physics of the solid state,'' translation of the journal Solid State Physics (Fizika tverdogo tela) of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, vol. 1, pp.&nbsp;102–110
*<span id="Kugler1985"></span>Kugler HK & Keller C (eds) 1985, ''Gmelin Handbook of Inorganic and Organometallic chemistry,'' 8th ed., 'At, Astatine', system no. 8a, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, {{ISBN|3-540-93516-9}}
*<span id="Lagrenaudie"></span>Lagrenaudie J 1953, 'Semiconductive properties of boron' (in French), ''Journal de chimie physique,'' vol. 50, nos. 11–12, Nov-Dec, pp.&nbsp;629–633
*<span id="Lazaruk"></span>Lazaruk SK, Dolbik AV, Labunov VA & Borisenko VE 2007, 'Combustion and Explosion of Nanostructured Silicon in Microsystem Devices', ''Semiconductors,'' vol. 41, no. 9, pp.&nbsp;1113–1116, {{doi|10.1134/S1063782607090175}}
*<span id="Legit"></span>Legit D, Friák M & Šob M 2010, 'Phase Stability, Elasticity, and Theoretical Strength of Polonium from First Principles,' ''Physical Review B,'' vol. 81, pp.&nbsp;214118–1–19, {{doi|10.1103/PhysRevB.81.214118}}
*<span id="Leith"></span>Leith MM 1966, Velocity of sound in solid iodine, MSc thesis, University of British Coloumbia. Leith comments that, '...&nbsp;as iodine is anisotropic in many of its physical properties most attention was paid to two amorphous samples which were thought to give representative average values of the properties of iodine' (p. iii).
*<span id="Lide"></span>Lide DR & Frederikse HPR (eds) 1998, ''CRC Handbook of chemistry and physics,'' 79th ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, {{ISBN|0-849-30479-2}}
*<span id="Lidin1996"></span>Lidin RA 1996, ''Inorganic substances handbook,'' Begell House, New York, {{ISBN|1-56700-065-7}}
*<span id="Lindegaard1966"></span>Lindegaard AL and Dahle B 1966, 'Fracture phenomena in amorphous selenium', ''Journal of Applied Physics,'' vol. 37, no. 1, pp.&nbsp;262‒66, {{DOI|10.1063/1.1707823}}
*<span id="Mann2000"></span>Mann JB, Meek TL & Allen LC 2000, 'Configuration energies of the main group elements', ''Journal of the American Chemical Society,'' vol. 122, no. 12, pp.&nbsp;2780–2783, {{DOI|10.1021ja992866e}}
*<span id="Marlowe1970"></span>Marlowe MO 1970, ''Elastic properties of three grades of fine grained graphite to 2000°C,'' NASA CR‒66933, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Scientific and Technical Information Facility, College Park, Maryland
*<span id="Martienssen2005"></span>Martienssen W & Warlimont H (eds) 2005, ''Springer Handbook of Condensed Matter and Materials Data,'' Springer, Heidelberg, {{ISBN|3-540-30437-1}}
*<span id="Matula1979"></span>Matula RA 1979, 'Electrical resistivity of copper, gold, palladium, and silver,' ''Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data,'' vol. 8, no. 4, pp.&nbsp;1147–1298, {{DOI|10.1063/1.555614 }}
*<span id="McQuarrie1987"></span>McQuarrie DA & Rock PA 1987, ''General chemistry,'' 3rd ed., WH Freeman, New York
*<span id="Mendeléeff1897a"></span>Mendeléeff DI 1897, ''The Principles of Chemistry,'' vol. 2, 5th ed., trans. G Kamensky, AJ Greenaway (ed.), Longmans, Green & Co., London
*<span id="Mercier1982"></span>Mercier R & Douglade J 1982, 'Structure cristalline d'un oxysulfate d'arsenic(III) As<sub>2</sub>O(SO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub> (ou As<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>.2SO<sub>3</sub>)', ''Acta Crystallographica Section B,'' vol. 38, no. 3, pp.&nbsp;1731–1735, {{DOI|10.1107/S0567740882007055}}
*<span id="Metcalfe1966"></span>Metcalfe HC, Williams JE & Castka JF 1966, ''Modern chemistry,'' 3rd ed., Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York
*<span id="Mikulec"></span>Mikulec FV, Kirtland JD & Sailor MJ 2002, 'Explosive Nanocrystalline Porous Silicon and Its Use in Atomic Emission Spectroscopy', ''Advanced Materials,'' vol. 14, no. 1, pp.&nbsp;38–41, {{doi|10.1002/1521-4095(20020104)14:1<38::AID-ADMA38>3.0.CO;2-Z}}
*<span id="Moss1952"></span>Moss TS 1952, ''Photoconductivity in the Elements,'' London, Butterworths
*<span id="MottDavis"></span>Mott NF & Davis EA 2012, 'Electronic Processes in Non-Crystalline Materials', 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford, {{ISBN|978-0-19-964533-6}}
*<span id="Nakao"></span>Nakao Y 1992, 'Dissolution of Noble Metals in Halogen-Halide-Polar Organic Solvent Systems', ''Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications,'' no. 5, pp.&nbsp;426–427, {{doi|10.1039/C39920000426}}
*<span id="Nemodruk1969"></span>Nemodruk AA & Karalova ZK 1969, ''Analytical chemistry of boron,'' R Kondor trans., Ann Arbor Humphrey Science, Ann Arbor, Michigan
*<span id="NS1975"></span>''New Scientist'' 1975, 'Chemistry on the islands of stability', 11 Sep, p.&nbsp;574, ISSN 1032-1233
*<span id="Ida"></span>Noddack I 1934, 'On element 93', ''Angewandte Chemie,'' vol. 47, no. 37, pp.&nbsp;653–655, {{doi|10.1002/ange.19340473707}}
*<span id="Olechna"></span>Olechna DJ & Knox RS 1965, 'Energy-band structure of selenium chains', ''Physical Review,'' vol. 140, pp.&nbsp;A986‒A993, {{DOI|10.1103/PhysRev.140.A986}}
*<span id="Orton2004"></span>Orton JW 2004, ''The story of semiconductors,'' Oxford University, Oxford, {{ISBN|0-19-853083-8}}
*<span id="Parish1977"></span>Parish RV 1977, ''The metallic elements,'' Longman, London
*<span id="Partington"></span>Partington JR 1944, ''A text-book of inorganic chemistry'', 5th ed., Macmillan & Co., London
*<span id="Pauling1988"></span>Pauling L 1988, [https://books.google.com/books?id=EpxSzteNvMYC&pg=PA183 ''General chemistry],'' Dover Publications, NY, {{ISBN|0-486-65622-5}}
*<span id="Perkins"></span>Perkins D 1998, ''Mineralogy,'' Prentice Hall Books, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, {{ISBN|0-02-394501-X}}
*<span id="Pottenger1976"></span>Pottenger FM & Bowes EE 1976, ''Fundamentals of chemistry'', Scott, Foresman and Co., Glenview, Illinois
*<span id="Qin2012"></span>Qin J, Nishiyama N, Ohfuji H, Shinmei T, Lei L, Heb D & Irifune T 2012, 'Polycrystalline γ-boron: As hard as polycrystalline cubic boron nitride', ''Scripta Materialia,'' vol. 67, pp.&nbsp;257‒260, {{DOI|10.1016/j.scriptamat.2012.04.032}}
*<span id="Rao1986"></span>Rao CNR & Ganguly P 1986, 'A new criterion for the metallicity of elements', ''Solid State Communications,'' vol. 57, no. 1, pp.&nbsp;5–6, {{DOI|10.1016/0038-1098(86)90659-9}}
*<span id="Rao2002"></span>Rao KY 2002, [https://books.google.com/books?id=BfyWUnv_-rEC&printsec=frontcover ''Structural chemistry of glasses,''] Elsevier, Oxford, {{ISBN|0-08-043958-6}}
*<span id="Raub1980"></span>Raub CJ & Griffith WP 1980, 'Osmium and sulphur', in ''Gmelin handbook of inorganic chemistry,'' 8th ed., 'Os, Osmium: Supplement,' K Swars (ed.), system no. 66, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp.&nbsp;166–170, {{ISBN|3-540-93420-0}}
*<span id="Ravindran1998"></span>Ravindran P, Fast L, Korzhavyi PA, Johansson B, Wills J & Eriksson O 1998, 'Density functional theory for calculation of elastic properties of orthorhombic crystals: Application to TiSi<sub>2</sub>', ''Journal of Applied Physics,'' vol. 84, no. 9, pp.&nbsp;4891‒4904, {{DOI|10.1063/1.368733}}
*<span id="Reynolds1969"></span>Reynolds WN 1969, ''Physical properties of graphite,'' Elsevier, Amsterdam
*<span id="Rochow1966"></span>Rochow EG 1966, ''The metalloids,'' DC Heath and Company, Boston
*<span id="Rock1974"></span>Rock PA & Gerhold GA 1974, ''Chemistry: Principles and applications,'' WB Saunders, Philadelphia
*<span id="Russell1981"></span>Russell JB 1981, ''General chemistry,'' McGraw-Hill, Auckland
*<span id="Russell2005"></span>Russell AM & Lee KL 2005, [https://books.google.com/books?id=fIu58uZTE-gC&printsec=frontcover ''Structure-property relations in nonferrous metals,''] Wiley-Interscience, New York, {{ISBN|0-471-64952-X}}
*<span id="Sacks"></span>Sacks O 2001, ''Uncle Tungsten: Memories of a chemical boyhood,'' Alfred A Knopf, New York, {{ISBN|0-375-40448-1}}
*<span id="Sanderson1960"></span>Sanderson RT 1960, ''Chemical periodicity,'' Reinhold Publishing, New York
*<span id="Sanderson1967"></span>Sanderson RT 1967, ''Inorganic chemistry,'' Reinhold, New York
*<span id="SandersonK"></span>Sanderson K 2012, 'Stinky rocks hide Earth's only haven for natural fluorine', ''Nature News,'' July, {{doi|10.1038/nature.2012.10992}}
*<span id="Schaefer1968"></span>Schaefer JC 1968, 'Boron' in CA Hampel (ed.), ''The encyclopedia of the chemical elements,'' Reinhold, New York, pp.&nbsp;73–81
*<span id="Sidgwick1950"></span>Sidgwick NV 1950, ''The chemical elements and their compounds,'' vol. 1, Clarendon, Oxford
*<span id="Sidorov1960"></span>Sidorov TA 1960, 'The connection between structural oxides and their tendency to glass formation', ''Glass and Ceramics,'' vol. 17, no. 11, pp.&nbsp;599–603, {{DOI|10.1007BF00670116}}
*<span id="Sisler1973"></span>Sisler HH 1973, ''Electronic structure, properties, and the periodic law,'' Van Nostrand, New York
*<span id="Slezak"></span>Slezak 2014, '[https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn24886-natural-ball-lightning-probed-for-the-first-time.html Natural ball lightning probed for the first time]', ''New Scientist,'' 16 January
*<span id="Slough1972"></span>Slough W 1972, 'Discussion of session 2b: Crystal structure and bond mechanism of metallic compounds', in O Kubaschewski (ed.), ''Metallurgical chemistry, proceedings of a symposium held at Brunel University and the National Physical Laboratory on the 14, 15 and 16 July 1971,'' Her Majesty's Stationery Office [for the] National Physical Laboratory, London
*<span id="Slyh1955"></span>Slyh JA 1955, 'Graphite', in JF Hogerton & RC Grass (eds), ''Reactor handbook: Materials,'' US Atomic Energy Commission, McGraw Hill, New York, pp.&nbsp;133‒154
*<span id="Smith1921"></span>Smith A 1921, ''General chemistry for colleges,'' 2nd ed., Century, New York
*<span id="Sneed1954"></span>Sneed MC 1954, ''General college chemistry,'' Van Nostrand, New York
*<span id="Sommer">Sommer AH, ‘Alloys of Gold with alkali metals’, ''Nature,'' vol. 152, p.&nbsp;215, {{doi|10.1038/152215a0}}
*<span id="Soverna2004"></span>Soverna S 2004, [https://web.archive.org/web/20070329222141/http://www.gsi.de/informationen/wti/library/scientificreport2003/files/167.pdf 'Indication for a gaseous element 112,'] in U Grundinger (ed.), ''GSI Scientific Report 2003,'' GSI Report 2004-1, p.&nbsp;187, ISSN 0174-0814
*<span id="Stoker2010"></span>Stoker HS 2010, [https://books.google.com/books?id=Yig6eLv_O4MC&printsec=frontcover ''General, organic, and biological chemistry,''] 5th ed., Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning, Belmont CA, {{ISBN|0-495-83146-8}}
*<span id="Stoye"></span>Stoye E 2014, '[http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/2014/10/iridium-oxide-cation-oxidation-state-9 Iridium forms compound in +9 oxidation state]', ''Chemistry World,'' 23 October
*<span id="Sun"></span>Sun H, Xu Z & Gao C 2013, 'Multifunctional, Ultra-Flyweight, Synergistically Assembled Carbon Aerogels', ''Advanced Materials,'', vol. 25, no. 18, pp.&nbsp;2554–2560, {{doi|10.1002/adma.201204576}}
*<span id="SundaraA"></span>Sundara Rao RVG 1950, 'Elastic constants of orthorhombic sulphur,' ''Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Section A,'' vol. 32, no. 4, pp.&nbsp;275–278, {{DOI|10.1007/BF03170831}}
*<span id="SundaraB"></span>Sundara Rao RVG 1954, 'Erratum to: Elastic constants of orthorhombic sulphur', ''Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Section A,'' vol. 40, no. 3, p.&nbsp;151
*<span id="Swalin1962"></span>Swalin RA 1962, ''Thermodynamics of solids,'' John Wiley & Sons, New York
*<span id="Tilley2004"></span>Tilley RJD 2004, ''Understanding solids: The science of materials,'' 4th ed., John Wiley, New York
*<span id="Walker"></span>Walker JD, Newman MC & Enache M 2013, ''Fundamental QSARs for metal ions,'' CRC Press, Boca Raton, {{ISBN|978-1-4200-8434-4}}
*<span id="White"></span>White MA, Cerqueira AB, Whitman CA, Johnson MB & Ogitsu T 2015, 'Determination of Phase Stability of Elemental Boron', ''Angewandte Chemie International Edition,'' {{doi|10.1002/anie.201409169}}
*<span id="Wiberg2001"></span>Wiberg N 2001, [https://books.google.com/books?id=Mtth5g59dEIC&printsec=frontcover ''Inorganic chemistry],'' Academic Press, San Diego, {{ISBN|0-12-352651-5}}
*<span id="Wickleder2006"></span>Wickleder MS, Pley M & Büchner O 2006, 'Sulfates of precious metals: Fascinating chemistry of potential materials', ''Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine chemie,'' vol. 632, nos. 12–13, p.&nbsp;2080, {{DOI|10.1002/zaac.200670009}}
*<span id="Wickleder2007"></span>Wickleder MS 2007, 'Chalcogen-oxygen chemistry', in FA Devillanova (ed.), ''Handbook of chalcogen chemistry: new perspectives in sulfur, selenium and tellurium,'' RSC, Cambridge, pp.&nbsp;344–377, {{ISBN|978-0-85404-366-8}}
*<span id="Wilson1965"></span>Wilson JR 1965, 'The structure of liquid metals and alloys', ''Metallurgical reviews,'' vol. 10, p.&nbsp;502
*<span id="Wilson1966"></span>Wilson AH 1966, ''Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics,'' Cambridge University, Cambridge
*<span id="Witczak2000"></span>Witczak Z, Goncharova VA & Witczak PP 2000, 'Irreversible effect of hydrostatic pressure on the elastic properties of polycrystalline tellurium', in MH Manghnani, WJ Nellis & MF Nicol (eds), ''Science and technology of high pressure: Proceedings of the International Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology (AIRAPT-17),'' Honolulu, Hawaii, 25‒30 July 1999, vol. 2, Universities Press, Hyderabad, pp.&nbsp;822‒825, {{ISBN|81-7371-339-1}}
*<span id="Witt"></span>Witt SF 1991, [https://www.osha.gov/dts/hib/hib_data/hib19980309.html 'Dimethylmercury'], ''Occupational Safety & Health Administration Hazard Information Bulletin,'' US Department of Labor, February 15, accessed 8 May 2015
*<span id="Wittenberg1972"></span>Wittenberg LJ 1972, 'Volume contraction during melting; emphasis on lanthanide and actinide metals', ''The Journal of Chemical Physics,'' vol. 56, no. 9, p.&nbsp;4526, {{DOI|10.1063/1.1677899}}
*<span id="Wulfsberg2000"></span>Wulfsberg G 2000, [https://books.google.com/books?id=hpWzxTnQH14C&pg=PA620 ''Inorganic chemistry],'' University Science Books, Sausalito CA, {{ISBN|1-891389-01-7}}
*<span id="Young2000"></span>Young RV & Sessine S (eds) 2000, ''World of chemistry,'' Gale Group, Farmington Hills, Michigan
*<span id="Zhigal'skii2003"></span>Zhigal'skii GP & Jones BK 2003, ''Physical properties of thin metal films,'' Taylor & Francis, London, {{ISBN|0-415-28390-6}}
*<span id="Zuckerman1991"></span>Zuckerman & Hagen (eds) 1991, ''Inorganic reactions and methods, vol, 5: The formation of bonds to group VIB ([[oxygen|O]], [[sulfur|S]], [[selenium|Se]], [[tellurium|Te]], [[polonium|Po]]) elements'' (part 1), VCH Publishers, Deerfield Beach, Fla, {{ISBN|0-89573-250-5}}
 
{{refend}}
{{PeriodicTablesFooter}}
{{compact periodic table}}
 
[[Category:Metals]]
[[Category:Metalloids]]
[[Category:Nonmetals]][رده:نافلزها]]
[[رده:شبه‌فلزها]]
[[رده:فلزها]]
۲۰

ویرایش