نفی بلد کرداری باستانیست: خسرو اول، شاه ساسانی ایران، ۲۹۲۰۰۰ شهروند، برده و مردم تسخیر شده را به شهر تازه تیسفون در سال ۵۴۲ میلادی نفی بلد کرد. بریتانیا شمار زیادی از مخالفین مذهبی و مجرمین را به آمریکا و استرالیا نفی بلد کرد.[نیازمند منبع]
- Generally, definitions of deportation make no distinction between official and unofficial acts, and apply equally to nationals and foreigners. See: Henckaerts, Mass Expulsion in Modern International Law and Practice, 1995, p. 4-5.
- Some countries distinguish between deportation and penal transportation. For example, in ایالات متحده آمریکا، "Strictly speaking, transportation, extradition, and deportation, although each has the effect of removing a person from the country, are different things, and have different purposes. Transportation is by way of punishment of one convicted of an offense against the laws of the country. Extradition is the surrender to another country of one accused of an offense against its laws, there to be tried, and, if found guilty, punished. Deportation is the removal of an alien out of the country, simply because his presence is deemed inconsistent with the public welfare and without any punishment being imposed or contemplated either under the laws of the country out of which he is sent or of those of the country to which he is taken." See: Fong Yue Ting v. United States, 149 U.S. 697, at 709 (1893).
- Christensen, The Decline of Iranshahr: Irrigation and Environments in the History of the Middle East, 500 B.C. to A.D. 1500, 1993.
- Daniels, Coming to America: A History of Immigration and Ethnicity in American Life, 2002