گروه‌های قومی زبانی فیلیپین

جزایر کشور فیلیپین سکونتگاه گروه‌های قومی زبانی مختلفی هستند که عمدتاً از گویشوران زبانهای خانواده آسترونزیایی می‌باشند. بسیاری از این گروه‌ها به مسیحیت گرویده‌اند که به ویژه ساکنان مناطق ساحلی و کم ارتفاع فیلیپین از این جمله‌اند. عناصری از فرهنگهای غیر بومی در ساکنان این مناطق توسعه یافته است. گروه‌های قومی زبانی فیلیپین شامل این موارد می‌شود:

  • ایواتان ها Ivatans
  • ایلوکانوها Ilocanos
  • Pangasinenses
  • Kapampangans
  • تاگالوگ ها
  • بیکولانوها Bicolanos
  • ویسایایی‌ها
  • Warays
گروه‌های قومی اصلی فیلیپین به تفکیک استان.

در غرب میندانائو و مجمع الجزایر سولو گروه‌های بومی پیرو اسلام ساکن هستند. اسپانیایی‌ها آنها را با توجه به نام قوم مور (علیرغم اختلافات فاحش فرهنگی به جز دین مشترک) مورو Moros نامیدند. در مناطق مرتفع میندانائول مردمان لوماد Lumad ساکن هستند که باورهای دینی خود را دارند.

مردم نگریتو گروه قومی پیش از آسترونیزیایی‌ها هستند که از سرزمین‌های اصلی آسیا و یکی از قدیمیترین انسانهای شناخته شده ساکن در فیلیپین با قدمت حدود ۹۰۰۰۰ سال هستند. جمعیت آنها در سال ۲۰۰۴ در حدود ۳۱٬۰۰۰ نفر بوده است.[۱] [نیازمند منبع]

اکثر فیلیپینی‌ها را مردم مالایو-پلینزی تشکیل می‌دهند که یکی از شاخه‌های مهم از خانواده زبانی آسترونزیایی محسوب می‌شود. سایر گروه‌های قومی در فیلیپین در اقلیت قرار دارند. مردمانی از قوم چینی هان، هندی‌ها، اسپانیایی‌ها، اروپایی‌ها و دیگر گروه‌های قومی از کشورهای دیگر هم در فیلیپین ساکن هستند. است.

هویت ژنتیکیویرایش

مطالعه ژنتیکی نشان داده است که مهاجرت چشمگیری از تایوان به فیلیپین صورت نگرفته است. تحقیقات دانشگاه لیدز نشان داد که DNA میتوکندریایی مردمان جنوب شرق آسیا از حدود ۵۰۰۰۰ سال پیش در حال تغییر بوده است.[۲]

اقوام بومیویرایش

گروه‌های ساکن مناطق پستویرایش

Ethnic group(s) Image Description(s) Notes
Bicolano   The Bicolanos originated in Bicol Region in Southern Luzon. There are several Bikol languages of which there is a total of about 3.5 million speakers.[۳] The most widespread Bikol language is Central Bikol comprising Naga, Legazpi, Daet and Partido dialects (Virac is sometimes considered as a separate language). They are known for their cuisine heavily using chili peppers and coconut milk.
Gaddang The Gaddang number about 25,000. They are known to have inhabited the upper Cagayan Valley, particularly Isabela and Nueva Vizcaya since before the Spanish arrived. Their language is distantly related to Ibanag and Yogad; it is also spoken by ethnically-related highland Ga'dang in the provinces of Ifugao and Mountain Province.
Ibanag The Ibanags are a predominantly Christian lowland ethnic group numbering around half a million people and who primarily inhabit the provinces of Cagayan and Isabela in the Cagayan Valley of northern Luzon. They speak the Ibanag language, which is distantly related to Ilocano.
Ilocano The Ilocano people are a predominantly Christian group who reside within the lowlands and coastal areas of northwestern Luzon.[۴] Minor pockets of Ilocanos are also found in scattered parts of Central Luzon, such as Zambales, northern Nueva Ecija and Aurora, in Metro Manila and in some municipalities in Mindanao, mainly in Sultan Kudarat.[۵] They speak Ilocano and they form the third largest ethnolinguistic group in the Philippines at about 8.1 million.[۶] Their foremost folk literature is Biag ni Lam-ang (The Life of Lam-ang), an epic poem with similarities with the Ramayana.
Ivatan   The Ivatan (also spelled as Ibatan) are the predominant ethnoliguistic group in the Batanes islands of the Philippines. They have close cultural links with the Taiwanese aborigines.
Kapampangan   The Kapampangan or Capampañgan people are the seventh-largest ethnolinguistic group in the Philippines. They originate from Pampanga in the central plains of Luzon, stretching from northeastern Bataan and southeastern Zambales, all the way up to southern Tarlac and southwestern Nueva Ecija. They are predominantly Christian. They primarily speak and use the Kapampangan language, which is spoken by more than 1.4 million people. In the Spanish colonial era, Pampanga was known to be a source of valiant soldiers. There was a Kapampangan contingent in the colonial army who helped defend Manila against the Chinese Pirate Limahon. They also helped in battles against the Dutch, the English and Muslim raiders.[۷]: 3  Kapampangans, along with the Tagalogs, played a major role in the Philippine Revolution.[۸]
Pangasinan   The Pangasinan people or the Pangasinense are the eighth-largest ethnolinguistic group in the Philippines. They are predominantly Christian and they originate from the northwestern seaboard of Luzon, mainly in the province of Pangasinan, northern Tarlac and southwestern La Union,[۹] as well as Benguet, northwestern Nueva Ecija, northern Zambales and western Nueva Vizcaya. They primarily speak and use the Pangasinan language, which is spoken by more than 1.2 million people.
Sambal   The Sambals are the inhabitants of the province of Zambales and the independent city of Olongapo. They are also found in the municipalities of Bolinao and Anda in Pangasinan. Sambals currently make up a large proportion of the population in the municipalities of Zambales province north of Iba. Their language, Sambal, is related to Kapampangan.
Subanon   Subanon or Subanu (also called Subanen or Subanun) is a Subanon word meaning "from the river." The term is derived from the root soba or suba (meaning "river") and the suffix -nun or -non which indicates locality or place of origin. Subanon are also known in the Anglicized form as "Subanen". The Subanon people are the largest lumad group (non-Muslim or -Christian indigenous cultural community) on the island of Mindanao.[۱۰] This ethnic group were the aborigines of western Mindanao particularly in Zamboanga Peninsula areas which are divided into different provinces such as Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga Sibugay, Basilan, Misamis Occidental and extended to the province of Misamis Oriental. The Subanon people speak the Subanon language.
Tagalog   The Tagalogs, the settlers of Manila and its surrounding areas, are one of the most widespread groups of people in the Philippines.[۸][۱۱] The Tagalog language was chosen as an official language of the Philippines in the 1930s. Today, Filipino, a de facto version of Tagalog, is taught throughout the archipelago.[۱۲] As of the 2000 census, there were about 21.5 million speakers of Tagalog in the Philippines, 23.8 million worldwide.[۱۳]
Visayan   The Visayans are an ethnic group native to the whole Visayas, to the southernmost islands of Luzon and the northern and eastern coastal parts of Mindanao. They are speakers of one or more Visayan languages, the most widely spoken being Cebuano, Hiligaynon and Waray-Waray.[۱۴] Other groups speak smaller languages such as Capiznon, Kinaray-a, Aklanon, Masbateño, Romblomanon, Surigaonon and Butuanon. They comprise the largest ethnic group in the country, numbering at around 33 million as of 2010.
Zamboangueño   The Zamboangueño people are an ethno-linguistic group of Austronesian descent speaking a Spanish-based creole and they number almost a million people. The Zamboangueño people (Zamboangueño/Spanish: Pueblo Zamboangueño) are a creole ethnic group of the Philippines and Malaysia originating in Zamboanga City (formerly, República de Zamboanga). Spanish censuses record that as much as one third of the inhabitants of the city of Zamboanga possess varying degrees of Spanish and Hispanoamerican admixture.[۱۵] In addition to this, select cities such as Iloílo, Bacólod, Cebú and Zamboanga, which were home to military fortifications or commercial ports during the Spanish era also hold sizable mestizo communities.[۱۶] The Zamboangueño constitute an authentic and distinct ethnic identity because of their coherent cultural and historical heritage, most notably the Zamboangueño language, that distinguishes them from neighbouring ethnic groups.

گروه‌های مناطق کوهستانویرایش

Sortable table
Name(s) Image Description Notes
Batak The Batak is a group of indigenous Filipino people that resides in the northeast portion of Palawan.
Bugkalot The Bugkalot are a 2,500-person tribe that lives in the southern Sierra Madre and Caraballo Mountains, on the east side of Luzon Island in the Philippines, primarily in the provinces of Nueva Vizcaya and Nueva Ecija.
Igorot   The Igorots/Cordillerans (Apayao, Itneg, Kalinga, Bontoc, Ifugao, Ibaloi, Kangkana-ey and Kalanguya) live in the highlands of Luzon. They are primarily located in the Cordillera Administrative Region.[۱۷]
Ilongots The Ilongot are a headhunting ethnic group found in the Caraballo Mountains.
Kagayanen The Kagayanen are from the municipality of Cagayancillo, Palawan province. There are about 36,000 Kagayanen in the Philippines.
Lumad   The Lumad of Mindanao includes several tribes such as the Manobo, the Tasaday, the Mamanwa, the Mandaya, the B'laan and the Kalagan. They primarily inhabit the eastern parts of Mindanao such as the Caraga, and Davao Regions.
Mangyan   The Mangyan communities are found in Mindoro. They are 13% in the population.
Molbog   The Molbog (referred to in the literature as Molebugan or Molebuganon) are concentrated in Balabak island and are also found in other islands of the coast of Palawan as far north as Panakan. The word Malubog means "murky or turbid water". The Molbog are probably a migrant people from nearby North Borneo. Judging from their dialect and some socio-cultural practices, they seem to be related to the Orang Tidung or Tirum (Camucone in Spanish), an Islamized indigenous group native to the lower east coast of Sabah and upper East Kalimantan.

However, some Sama words (of the Jama Mapun variant) and Tausug words are found in the Molbog dialect after a long period of exposure with those ethnics. This plus a few characteristics of their socio-cultural life style distinguish them from the Orang Tidung. Molbog livelihood includes subsistence farming, fishing and occasional barter trading with the Moros and neighbouring ethnic groups in Sabah. In the past, both the Molbog and the Palawanon Muslims were ruled by Sulu datus, thus forming the outer political periphery of the Sulu Sultanate. Intermarriage between Tausug and the Molbog hastened the Islamization of the Molbog. The offsprings of these intermarriages are known as kolibugan or "half-breed".

Negrito groups   The Negrito are several ethnic groups of the Australoid race who inhabit isolated parts of Southeast Asia.[۱۸] Their current populations include 12 Andamanese peoples of the Andaman Islands, six Semang peoples of Malaysia, the Mani of Thailand, and the Aeta/Agta and Ati, and 30 other peoples of the Philippines. Genetically, Negritos are the most distant human population from Africans at most loci studied thus far (except for MC1R, which codes for dark skin). The Negrito, Aeta, Batak, and Mamanwa live in remote areas throughout the islands.
Palawan Tribes The tribes of Palawan are a diverse group of tribes primarily located in the island of Palawan and its outlying islands. These tribal groups are widely distributed to the long strip of mainland island literally traversing Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao.

Palawan is home to many indigenous peoples whose origins date back thousands of centuries. Pre-historic discoveries reveal how abundant cultural life in Palawan survived before foreign occupiers and colonizers reached the Philippine archipelago. Today, Palawan is making its best to preserve and conserve the richness of its cultural groups. The provincial government strives to support the groups of indigenous peoples of Palawan.

Pala'wan The Pala'wan are a tribal people found in Southern Palawan particularly Quezon, Palawan.
Tagbanwa people The Tagbanwas are found in the western and eastern coastal areas of central Palawan. Their name means "people of the world". They are concentrated in the municipalities of Aborlan, Quezon and the city of Puerto Princesa. Two other ethnic groups called "Tagbanwa" (i.e. the Central Tagbanwa and the Calamian Tagbanwa) are from a different family of languages and should not be confused the Tagnbanwas discussed here. These are found Coron Island, Northern Palawan, Busuanga Island and the Baras coast. The Central Tagbanwa language is dying out as the younger generations are learning Cuyonon and Tagalog.|

The Tagbanwas speak the Tagbanwa language and has several sub-dialects. They are able to comprehend Tagalog, and, depending on their proximity to neighboring groups, Batak, Cuyonen and Calamian languages. They usually dress like the non-tribal lowlanders. However, elder men prefer to wear G-string while tilling or fishing. Houses are built from available forest materials. Bamboo and wood are used for the house's frame anahaw leaves are used to create walls and the roof and bamboo slats are used as flooring. Their basic social unit is the nuclear family which is composed of a married couple and their children usually one girl and one boy.

Taww't Bato The Taaw't Batos' name means "people of the rock". They are not actually a separate language or ethnic group, but rather a small community of traditional S.W. Palawanos who happen to reside in the crater of an extinct volcano during certain seasons of the year, in houses built on raised floors inside caves though others have set their homes on the open slopes. They are found in the Singnapan Basin, a valley bounded by Mount Mantalingajan on the east and the coast on the west. North of them is the municipality of Quezon, Palawan and to the South are the still unexplored regions of Palawan.

As of 1987, their population was about 198. Note that the common-seen spelling "Tau't Bato" or "Tau't Batu" is a misspelling based on the Tagalog word for "human" (tao). The Palawano word is "taaw." The men of the tribe wear G-strings while the women cover their lower bodies with bark or cloth that is made into a skirt. The upper half is left exposed although some now wear blouses that are bought from the market.

The people practice agriculture with cassava as the major source of carbohydrates. They also plant sweet potatoes, sugarcane, malunggay (Moringa oleifera), garlic, pepper, string beans, squash, tomatoes and pineapples. Others practice fishing, hunting and industrial arts. Their social organizations are based on family (kin ties), band (type of substinence activity) and settlement (geographic location).

Suludon The Tumandok people are an indigenous group who live in central Panay island. They are the largest indigenous people’s group in Panay, with a population تا تاریخ ۲۰۱۱ of some 94,000. They are mostly slash-and-burn farmers with bisaya rice as the main crop, the Tumandok also engage in hunting, fishing, and foraging for fruits and root crops.[۱۹]

مهاجرانویرایش


name Descriptions Notes
  Hispanic Their official population is unknown. Most of these are descendants of the Spanish settlers who settled in the islands during the Spanish colonial period. Most were of either pure Spanish ancestry or Amerindian-Spanish ancestry (The term 'Mestizo' originated in Latin America). The first groups of Hispanics sailed in 1565 with Miguel López de Legazpi from New Spain, in what is now Jalisco state, Mexico to colonize the Philippines.
  Indian Philippines has been part of Indianized kingdoms from the 7th century Srivijaya and earlier era. Indian culture, language, scripture, food, belief, arts, martial arts, epics have had profound impact on pre-Sanish Philippines which is still visible. They have contributed to the unique cultural blend in the Philippines. One source estimated the size of the Indian community in the Philippines in 2008 at 150,000 persons.[۲۰] Most Indians in the Philippines belong to either Sindhi people or Punjabi people ethnic groups, and are largely businessmen and traders. A smaller population of Indians belonging to the Marathi ethnic group form part of the clergy of Roman Catholic dioceses in the country.[۲۱][۲۲]
  Chinese Most migrations of Chinese to the Philippines started even before the Spanish colonial period, when foreign trade with other countries were opened to the Philippines.[۸][۲۳][۲۴] Ethnic Chinese sailed around the Philippine Islands from the 9th century onward and frequently interacted with the local Filipinos. Some datus, rajahs, and lakans (indigenous rulers) in the Philippines were themselves a product of the intermarriage between the Chinese merchant-settlers and the local Filipinos.
  American Some of these multiracial individuals are descended from Americans who settled in the Philippines during the United States colonial period, and others from tourists who have settled in the Philippines in the contemporary period. تا تاریخ ۲۰۱۱, the U.S, State Department estimated that there are an estimated four million Americans of Philippine ancestry in the United States, and more than 300,000 to 600,000 American citizens in the Philippines.[۲۵]
  Japanese Japanese residing in the Philippines including Filipinos of Japanese descent.[۲۶] Japanese people have been settling in the Philippines for centuries, therefore there has been much cultural and genetic blending.[۲۷] The Ryukyu Kingdom (Okinawa, etc...) also had heavy trade and mixing in the Philippines, particularly in Northern Luzon.
  Jewish Majority of the Jews in the Philippines are of the Sephardic branch of Judaism.[۲۸] The official population is unknown.
  Koreans Most of them are transient students and expatriates.[۲۹] Most are tourists or students studying in the Philippines.[۳۰]
  Arabs Their official population is unknown.[نیازمند منبع]
  Indonesians Most are fishermen and laborers. Some are overseas students and expatriates
Other

Other ethnic groups and/or nationalities include various European ethnicities (i.e. Italian and Greek), Brazilian, Canadian, Australian, New Zealander, Pacific Islander, Eastern European, Malaysian, Thai, Vietnamese, and other ethnic groups from other countries.

جستارهای وابستهویرایش

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