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راهنما:الفبای آوانگاری بین‌المللی کاتالانی

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IPA همخوان‌ها
کاتالونیا
C
بخش خودمختار والنسیا
V
Examples English approximation
b b bell, àmbit, capgròs [۱] best
v vell, watts [۱][۲] best (C), vest (V)
β avanç, selva [۳] a vest
b abans, arbre [۳] a vest (C), the best (V)
d drac, indret, ritme [۱] door
ð cada, lladre [۳] other
f força, bafs, salv face
ɡ guant, angle, guiar, ècdisi [۱] get
ɣ aigües, agrat, lloguer [۳] somewhat like away
k cors, quan, qui, llarg, Folch, kiwi scan
l laca, tela, cel·la,[۴] val [۵] US look – dark l
ʎ llacs, cella,[۴] vall, Elx [۵] billion
m meu, em, canvi [۵] mode
n neu, on, dansa [۵] need
ɲ nyeu, any, penges [۵] onion
ŋ sang, tinc, cigne [۵] ring
p por, dubte span
r ruc, mirra, honra [۶] اسکاتس rookلرزشی
ɾ truc, mira, hora, per [۶] US ladder
s set, rossa, està, ascens, cel, feliç sack
ts potser, tots, fluids, hertz cats
ʃ ʃ Xixona, guix, ells, sushi [۷] fish
jʃ caixa, peix fish (C), geisha (V)
xec, clenxa, Barx fish (C), cheap (V)
txec, empatx, raig, mig [۷] cheap
t terra, fred stand
v hafni, bafs d'aigua [۱] of
z z zel, onze, rosa, esma, feliçment [۱] zebra
dz utilitza pads (C), zebra (V)
dz tretze, tots alhora [۱] pads
ʒ ʒ guix blau [۱][۷] rouge
jʒ caixmir, peix de roca [۱][۷] rouge (C), beige (V)
j jo, ja [۱][۷] rouge (C), young (V)
joc, aljub, gespa, sorgir [۷] rouge (C), jeep (V)
mitjà, viatge, adjunt, migdia [۱][۷] jeep
IPA Marginal consonants
θ theta, Pozo [۸] thing
h ehem [۹] ham
x kharja, Bach, Jaén Scots loch
IPA واکهs[۱۰]
کاتالونیا
C
بخش خودمختار والنسیا
V
Examples English approximation
a sac, ànecs ah[۱۱]
ɛ ɛ set, pèls, essències led / lad
e sec, cafè / café, què led (C), they (V)
e séc, anells they
i sic, ties, país, raïm ski
ɔ soc, mòlt, això off
o sóc, molt US crow
u suc, dues, ús, reüll rule
IPA Unstressed vowels[۱۲]
کاتالونیا
C
بخش خودمختار والنسیا
V
Examples English approximation
ə a dona, amb, entens alpha (C), hubbub (V)
e dones, ens, que alpha (C), survey (V)
i naixement alpha (C), happy (V)
i fillet, llavis, hi posa, aïllar happy
u o oratge, baixos, posar-ho input (C), US pillow (V)
u fullet, ritu, cobert, ho posa input
IPA Marginal reduced vowels
a ad hoc (also /a/ in V) hubbub
e ídem, oceans (also /e/ in V) survey
o ego, mourà, caos (also /o/ in V) US pillow
IPA نیم‌واکهs[۱۳]
کاتالونیا
C
بخش خودمختار والنسیا
V
Examples English approximation
j iogurt, llei, hi ha, posa-hi, York young / joy
w quatre, Güell, lleu, posa-ho, web quick / grow
IPA الفبای آوانگاری بین‌المللی
کاتالونیا
C
بخش خودمختار والنسیا
V
Examples Explanation
ˈ dac [ˈdiðək] (C) / [ˈdiðak] (V) primary stress
ˌ Bellpuig [ˌbeʎˈputʃ] (C / V) secondary stress
. Maria [məˈɾi.ə] (C) / [maˈɾi.a] (V) syllable break
ː Imma [ˈimːə] (C) / [ˈimːa] (V) gemination
IPA Other representations
( ) Corts [ˈkoɾ(t)s] (C / V) optional sound

یادداشت‌هاویرایش

  1. ۱٫۰۰ ۱٫۰۱ ۱٫۰۲ ۱٫۰۳ ۱٫۰۴ ۱٫۰۵ ۱٫۰۶ ۱٫۰۷ ۱٫۰۸ ۱٫۰۹ ۱٫۱۰ گرفتهs assimilate to the جایگاه تولید of the following consonant. In هجاs produced in utterance-final position (i.e. the coda), واک obstruents become devoiced.
  2. While betacism (that is, the merging of /b/ and /v/ into one phoneme) is common in most speakers of in Catalan and Valencia, several dialects still contrast the two sounds (represented as b and v respectively in Catalan orthography). The contrast is also maintained in Standard Valencian and among cultivated Catalan speakers.
  3. ۳٫۰ ۳٫۱ ۳٫۲ ۳٫۳ Voiced انسدادی /b, d, ɡ/ become نرم‌شدگی [β, ð, ɣ] (that is, ناسوده or سایشی of the same place of articulation) when in the syllable onset and after a continuant. Otherwise they are pronounced as voiced or devoiced stops, similar to English b, d, g and p, t, k. Exceptions include /d/ after a کناری (آواشناسی), and /b/ after /f/. In traditional non-betacist dialects, /b/ fails to lenite.
  4. ۴٫۰ ۴٫۱ Catalan orthography distinguishes between ll (representing /ʎ/) and l·l (representing a geminated /lː/). In regular speech gemination of l·l is ignored altogether. Some dialects as well as young speakers can merge /ʎ/ with the glide [j] in a process similar to Spanish yeísmo.
  5. ۵٫۰ ۵٫۱ ۵٫۲ ۵٫۳ ۵٫۴ ۵٫۵ /n/ and /l/ assimilate the جایگاه تولید of a following consonant.
  6. ۶٫۰ ۶٫۱ The rhotic consonants r /ɾ/ and rr /r/ only contrast between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as r with [r] occurring word-initially, after /l/, /n/, and /s/, and in compounds; and [ɾ] after hard plosives, the نرم‌شدگی spirants [β, ð, ɣ], and /f/. Syllable-final /ɾ/ varies according to dialect, emphasis, morpheme and the following sound. In all Catalan dialects, except most of Valencian, /ɾ/ is lost in coda position in suffixes of nouns and adjectives denoting the masculine singular and in the infinitive suffixes of verbs, except when the following morpheme begins with a vowel (although this may vary).
  7. ۷٫۰ ۷٫۱ ۷٫۲ ۷٫۳ ۷٫۴ ۷٫۵ ۷٫۶ While /ʃ ʒ tʃ dʒ/ are often described simply as "postalveolar" by many sources, phonetic work done by Daniel Recasens shows the postalveolar صفیری to be alveolo-palatal ([ɕ], [ʑ], [] and [], respectively). Nevertheless, since ʃ ʒ tʃ dʒ are overwhelmingly used in the linguistic literature on Catalan and Valencian, those characters are also used on Wikipedia.
  8. In colloquial Catalan, /θ/ can be replaced by /s/ as in Latin American Spanish, Canarian Spanish and some Galician and Southern Peninsular accents.
  9. Other than in وام‌واژهs and حرف ندا, the letter h is always silent.
  10. Standard Catalan and Standard Valencian have seven تکیه (زبان‌شناسی) واکهs /a, ɛ, e, i, ɔ, o, u/ (Balearic dialects can contrast up to eight stressed vowels—those are /a, ɛ, e, i, ɔ, o, u/, plus /[[|ə]]/.)
  11. The Catalan /a/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of ah (but shorter) and the vowel of uh; the Catalan vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
  12. In unstressed position, the seven-way vowel contrast is reduced in all dialects.
    • Eastern Catalan (Alguerese, Balearic, Central and Northern): /e/, /ɛ/, and /a/ reduce to [ə] (though in Alguerese and partially some modern Central accents (e.g. parts of Barcelonan) /e/, /ɛ/, and /a/ merge to [a]) while /o/ and /ɔ/ reduce to [u] (however, in most of Majorcan /ɔ/ and /o/ merge to [o]).
    • Western Catalan (North-Western, Tortosan and Valencian): /ɛ/ reduces to [e] and /ɔ/ reduces to [o]. Exceptionally there are some cases where unstressed e and o may reduce to [a] and [u] respectively.
  13. The نیم‌واکه [j] and [w] can be combined with most vowels to form واکه مرکبs and triphthongs. For a list with all the combinations, see Catalan phonology#Diphthongs and triphthongs.

پیوند به بیرونویرایش

Catalan

  • "Gramàtica de la llengua catalana (secció de fonètica i fonologia)" (به Catalan). Barcelona: Institut d'Estudis Catalans (IEC).
  • "Aplicació al català dels principis de transcripció de l'Associació Fonètica Internacional" (PDF) (به Catalan). Barcelona: Institut d'Estudis Catalans (IEC).
  • "Transcripcions fonètiques als mitjans audiovisuals de Catalunya" (به Catalan). Barcelona: Corporació Catalana de Mitjans Audiovisuals (CCMA).
  • "Illustrations of the IPA: Catalan" (PDF) (به English). Barcelona.

Valencian

  • "L'estàndard oral valencià" (PDF) (به Catalan). Valencia (València): Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (AVL).
  • "Anotació ortoèpica del valencià" (به Catalan). Alicante (Alacant): University of Alicante (UA) / Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (AVL).
Dictionaries