راهنما:الفبای آوانگاری بین‌المللی دانمارکی

در این جدول الفبای آوانگاری بین‌المللی هستند که روش تلفظ‌های زبان دانمارکی را در مقاله‌های ویکی‌پدیا نشان می‌دهند.

واکه‌ها
آوانگاری مثال نزدیک‌ترین معادل انگلیسی
ɑ tak [ˈtsʰɑk] art
ɑ: rane [ˈʁɑːnə] father
ʌ ånd [ˈʌnˀ] somewhat like off
ɒ normal [nɒˈmɛˀl] off
ɒ: kort [ˈkʰɒːt] dog
æ kat [ˈkʰæt] bat
æː græde [ˈkʁæːðə] bad
bed [ˈpe̝ð] ('garden plot') bit
e̝: mene [ˈme̝ːnə] bid
e ven [ˈven], frisk [ˈfʁesk] bait
mæle [ˈmeːlə] bade
ɛ bær [ˈpɛɐ̯] bet
ɛː gade [ˈkɛːðə] bed
i tisse [ˈtsʰisə] beat
mile [ˈmiːlə] bead
o foto [ˈfoto] story, but short
kone [ˈkʰoːnə] story
ɔ ost [ˈɔst] ('cheese') somewhat like growth
ɔ: måle [ˈmɔːlə] somewhat like grow
ø nød [ˈnøðˀ] somewhat like hurt
øː løber [ˈløːpɐ] ('runner') somewhat like herd
œ bønne [ˈpœnə] somewhat like hurt
œ: høne [ˈhœːnə] somewhat like herd
ɶ tør [ˈtsʰɶɐ̯ˀ] ('dry') somewhat like but
ɶ: røre [ˈʁɶːɐ] somewhat like bud
u ud [ˈuðˀ] moot
hule [ˈhuːlə] mood
y tyk [ˈtsʰyk] somewhat like refute
synlig [ˈsyːnli] somewhat like feud
Unstressed-only
ɐ løber [ˈløːpɐ] ('runner') coda
ð̩ malet [ˈmɛːlð̩][۱] the book (pronounced quickly)
ə hoppe [ˈhʌpə] focus
gammel [ˈkɑml̩][۱] bottle
København [kʰøpm̩ˈhɑwˀn][۱] rhythm
vinden [ˈve̝nˀn̩] ('the wind')[۱] sudden
ŋ̍ ryggen [ˈʁœkŋ̍][۱] Washington
همخوان‌ها
آوانگاری مثال نزدیک‌ترین معادل انگلیسی
ɐ̯ er [ˈɛɐ̯] near
ɕ sjat [ˈɕæt] ship
ð øde [ˈøːðə] bathe
f fod [ˈfoðˀ] fan
h hat [ˈhæt] heart
j jord [ˈjoɐ̯ˀ], mig [ˈmɑj] yawn
k god [ˈkoðˀ] scar
kone [ˈkʰoːnə] car
l lykke [ˈløkə] lake
m mod [ˈmoðˀ] man
n node [ˈnoːðə] nap
ŋ lang [ˈlɑŋˀ] ring
p bog [ˈpɔwˀ] spot
pol [ˈpʰoˀl] pot
ʁ rød [ˈʁœðˀ] French parler
s sod [ˈsoðˀ] between sip and ship (retracted)
t dåb [ˈtɔˀp] start
tjener [ˈtɕeːnɐ] chin
tsʰ tak [ˈtsʰɑk] tart
v våd [ˈvɔðˀ] very
w hav [ˈhɑw] ('ocean') cow
نوای گفتار
آوانگاری مثال توضیح
ˈ ˌ husmor [ˈhusˌmoɐ̯] تکیه (places before the stressed syllable)[۲]
ˀ hun hund DA-stød ex Hun Hund.ogg [ˈhun ˈhunˀ] Stød[۳]

یادداشت‌هاویرایش

  1. ۱٫۰ ۱٫۱ ۱٫۲ ۱٫۳ ۱٫۴ /əð, əl, ən/ become همخوان هجایی [ð̩, l̩, m̩, n̩, ŋ̍] in a process known as schwa-assimilation ([m̩, ŋ̍] are variants of /ən/, assimilated to the place of the preceding consonant). The process also often affects /ə/ after a long vowel or /ð, j, l, n, v/, but these types of assimilation are not as ubiquitous as, and are more contextually constrained than, the aforementioned combinations (Basbøll 2005:293ff), so they are not reflected in transcription.
  2. In Standard Copenhagen Danish, a stressed syllable has a lower بسامد پایه than the following unstressed syllable, which then has a high-falling pitch.
  3. Stød, which is realized most often as creaky voice (found in English as the vocal fry register; ⟨◌̰⟩ in standard IPA), can only occur after a long vowel or a sequence of a short vowel and [ð, j, l, m, n, ŋ, w, ɐ̯] in a stressed syllable. Phonologically long vowels with stød are shorter in realization, so they are transcribed as short in this guide (cf. pæn /ˈpɛ:ˀn/ [ˈpʰeˀn] 'nice', pen /ˈpɛnˀ/ [ˈpʰenˀ] 'pen').

منابعویرایش

  • Basbøll, Hans (2005). The Phonology of Danish. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-203-97876-5.
  • Brink, Lars; Lund, Jørn; Heger, Steffen; Jørgensen, J. Normann (1991). Den Store Danske Udtaleordbog. Copenhagen: Munksgaard. ISBN 87-16-06649-9.
  • Grønnum, Nina (2005). Fonetik og fonologi: almen og dansk (3rd ed.). Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag. ISBN 87-500-3865-6.
  • Molbæk Hansen, Peter (1990). Udtaleordbog. Copenhagen: Gyldendal. ISBN 978-87-02-05895-6.