باز کردن منو اصلی

جداول زیر نحوهٔ نمایش تلفظ‌های زبان ایرلندی از سوی الفبای آوانگاری بین‌المللی (IPA) را در بر می‌گیرند.

حروف بیصدا
درشت[۱] نازک[۲] متناظر انگلیسی
IPA مثال IPA مثال
bain, scuab béal, cnáib boot; beautiful
d̪ˠ dorn, nead dearg, cuid do (but dental), though in Hiberno-English; dew
fós, graf
pholl
fíon, stuif
phríosún
fool; fuel
ɡ gasúr, bog ɟ geata, carraig goose; argue
ɣ dhorn
ghasúr
j dhearg
gheata
(no equivalent); yellow
h[۳] Shasana, shean
thaisce, theanga
hata, na héisc
hand
k cáis, mac c ceist, mic scan, skew
l̪ˠ[۴] labhair, balla l̠ʲ[۴] leabhair, goilleadh filth; million
[۴] fhlaith, bealach [۴] fhleasc, goile pool; leaf
mór, am milis, im moot; mute
n̪ˠ[۵] naoi, donna n̠ʲ[۵] ní, bainne tenth; inch
[۵] dona [۵] bainis noon; new
ŋ ngasúr ɲ ngeata long; angular
poll, stop príosún, truip poor; pure
ɾˠ rí, cuairt, barr, cairr ɾʲ fhréamh, tirim rule (but tapped); real (but tapped)
Sasana, tús, speal ʃ sean, cáis soon; sheet
t̪ˠ taisce, ceart tír, beirt stand (but dental), thorn in Hiberno-English; stew
w[۶] bhain, dubh
mhór, léamh
vóta
bhéal, sibh
mhilis, nimh
veidhlín
have; view
x cháis, taoiseach ç cheist, deich loch (Scottish English); hue (pronounced strongly)
حروف صدادار
IPA مثال ها متناظر انگلیسی
a mac trap
a: tá father
ɛ ceist best
e: mé, Gael pay
ɪ ith, duine kit
i: mín mean
ɔ olc, deoch cloth
o: bó, ceol roll
ʊ dubh, fliuch good
u: tú too
ə solas, milis sofa
[۷] bia idea
[۷] fuar truant
əi[۷] saghas light
əu[۷] leabhar about

پانویسویرایش

  1. Irish makes contrasts between velarized ("broad") and palatalized ("slender") consonants. Velarized consonants, denoted in the IPA by a superscript ‹ˠ›, are pronounced with the back of the زبان (کالبدشناسی) raised toward the نرم‌کام، which happens to the /l/ in English pill in some accents, like انگلیسی فصیح and General American, but not in انگلیسی ایرلندی. In Irish orthography, broad consonants are surrounded by the letters ‹a›, ‹o›, ‹u›. Note that the superscript character ‹ˠ› is not a capital "Y" but a Greek lowercase گاما (حرف), ‹γ›.
  2. "نازک" (palatalized) consonants, denoted in the IPA by a superscript ‹ʲ›, are pronounced with the body of the زبان (کالبدشناسی) raised toward the سخت‌کام، in a manner similar to the articulation of the ‹y› sound in yes. In Irish orthography, slender consonants are surrounded by the letters ‹e›, ‹i›.
  3. /h/ is neither broad nor slender.
  4. ۴٫۰ ۴٫۱ ۴٫۲ ۴٫۳ Few if any modern dialects of Irish distinguish all four types of "l" sound. Most dialects have merged /l̪ˠ/ and /lˠ/ as /l̪ˠ/, and some have also merged /l̠ʲ/ and /lʲ/ as /lʲ/. Still others have merged /lˠ/ and /lʲ/ as /l/.
  5. ۵٫۰ ۵٫۱ ۵٫۲ ۵٫۳ Few if any modern dialects of Irish distinguish all four types of "n" sound. Most dialects have merged /n̪ˠ/ and /nˠ/ as [n̪ˠ], and some have also merged /n̠ʲ/ and /nʲ/ as [nʲ]. Still others have merged /nˠ/ and /nʲ/ as [n]. In parts of Munster, /n̠ʲ/ has merged with /ɲ/ in non-initial position.
  6. Also /vˠ/ in some positions in some dialects.
  7. ۷٫۰ ۷٫۱ ۷٫۲ ۷٫۳ All Irish diphthongs have falling sonority; they could therefore more precisely be transliterated as iə̯, uə̯, əi̯, əu̯.

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